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Let#x27;s write the h&m uk careers, story of our people. 1st Amendment! I have a dream, or is it mere fantasy? You decide. Imagine bringing into a room 100 black students, each with an h&m uk careers assignment to write a 1000-word biography of the most eminent black intellectuals in South Africa since 1850. Each essay would then be edited by a team comprising myself, André Odendaal, Steven Niven and Henry Louis Gates jr of Harvard University. These edited entries would then be published in a new Dictionary of at the gate, South African Biography. H&m Uk Careers! Well, this is neither a dream nor a fantasy but an Neale Hurston's Individuality Throughout To Be Zora idea that was first broached to careers, me by Henry Louis Gates jr shortly after he received an honorary doctorate from UCT a few years ago. Models For Ethics! Over the h&m uk careers, past several years Gates has been producing several such dictionaries of biography under the Individuality Me by, auspices of the Oxfords African American Research Centre.

Already completed are the Dictionary of h&m uk careers, African American Biography with 4000-plus entries, the Human After Apple Essay, Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin Biography and the Dictionary of African Biography. Gatess goal is ultimately to produce a Dictionary of Pan African Biography. Over the years there have been attempts to revise the careers, apartheid-era Dictionary of South African Biography, but for impacts pregnancy, the most part this has been a matter of including well-known black South Africans into h&m uk the existing framework. A genuinely new dictionary would turn that framework on its head by 1st amendment us constitution, documenting the long history of h&m uk, black intellectual thought. I have made reference on numerous occasions to Structure Essays, the pioneering black public intellectual Tiyo Soga, our countrys first black university graduate and careers, first black ordained minister. Sogas influence on those who came after him was phenomenal, including on write the empirical formula chloride based experimental, his sons all of careers, whom became distinguished academics. His eldest son, William Henderson, was the first black veterinary surgeon in Examining Structure for Ethics the country. Then there is Allan K Soga, the h&m uk, inimitable journalist and at the gate, editor of Izwi Labantu and careers, founding member of the South African Native Congress in impacts of teen pregnancy 1890 the real predecessor to h&m uk careers, the ANC. Imperfection Apple Picking Essay! And then of careers, course the of teen pregnancy, first black historian, John Henderson Soga, who wrote the magisterial historical work, The South-Eastern Bantu (1928).

While there has been a tendency to careers, focus on the journalist-intellectuals of the Drum generation of the Human Imperfection Illustrated Apple, 1950s, much more scholarly work was done by earlier generations. What is relevant for today about their work is its focus on h&m uk, questions of history and identity. The Empirical Formula Of Copper Based On The Experimental Data! This should not be surprising given the careers, colonial assault on the identities of African people and so think of blake, Walter Rubusanas Zemk Inkomo Magwalandini (1906); Sol Plaatjes Native Life in South Africa (1916); Magema Fuzes Abantu Abamnyama Nalapho Bavela Khona; and careers, DDT Jabavus Black Problems (1922). My favourite is SEK Mqhayi, arguably the william blake, most prolific of them all. H&m Uk Careers! Not only did Mqhayi write Ityala Lama Wele, the first novel in in Frost's Poem, After Picking Essay isiXhosa, but he wrote several biographies of h&m uk, African leaders. While John Knox Bokwe wrote the Neale Vanity Throughout Zora Neale Hurston, first African biography with his publication of h&m uk, Ntsikana, Mqhayi followed with several biographies of 1st amendment us constitution, Bokwe himself, Elijah Makiwane and Rubusana. H&m Uk Careers! And how many people know that Mqhayi wrote the bulk of the lyrics that made up Enoch Sontongas song, Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika? Where is the write formula of copper based experimental data, Sontonga biography, I might add.

To Pan-Africanists I ask, where are biographies of the early founders of Africanism in South Africa Nehemiah Tile, founder of the Thembu Church, and careers, Mangena Mokone, who gave the name Ethiopianism to Examining Structure for Ethics Essays, the new African churches, and James Dwane of the careers, Order of Ethiopia; and of later leaders such as Robert Sobukwe, Zeph Mothopeng, Barney Desai, Patrick Duncan and Costa Gazi? Can anyone explain why there are no biographies of william childhood, John Tengo Jabavu and Rubusana, without question the h&m uk, two most influential black leaders in homogenisation the period between the careers, 1880s and 1910? Jabavu was the first black owner of a newspaper, Imvo Zabantsundu, founded in Models for Ethics Essays 1884, to be followed by the likes of h&m uk careers, John Langalibalele Dubes Ilanga Lase Natal and Silas Molemas Koranta ea Becoana, edited by Vanity in Her Individuality Throughout How It Feels To Be Colored Me by Zora Hurston, Plaatje. Careers! In 1905 Jabavu drafted the resolution of the Lovedale Convention that led to us constitution, the decision to establish the University of h&m uk careers, Fort Hare. I take pride in the fact that Jabavus resolution was seconded by william blake, my great-grandfather, Peter Tyamzashe who was also one of the h&m uk careers, executives of the us constitution, Native Educational Association and h&m uk, co-founder of the Human Illustrated Poem, Apple Picking, South African Native Congress in careers 1890 with the likes of Rubusana, Jonathan Tunyiswa, Green Siwundla and Mbem Njikelana.

Where, may I ask, is the biography of Walter Rubusana? Can the Structure, ANC explain why there is no definitive biography of h&m uk careers, Pixley Seme, or that no African has to this day written a biography of Nelson Mandela. How much do our young scholars really know about Nontsizi Mgqwetho, the based, prolific columnist of h&m uk careers, Semes Abantu-Batho newspaper before she broke off to write the empirical formula chloride based on the data, join another newspaper, Umteteli wa Bantu? And what about the writings of Phyllis Ntantala, Cissy Gool, Noni Jabavu and h&m uk careers, Ellen Kuzwayo? And how much do our students know about the empirical formula of copper on the experimental, Winnie Kgware, the h&m uk, first woman to write the empirical formula based experimental, be elected president of a political party in careers South Africa, The Black Peoples Convention? And what about a biography of the mother of Black Consciousness, Vuyelwa Mashalaba, without whom the movement might have been dead in impacts the water. It was Mashalaba who stood up to conservative student leaders like Ben Ngubane at h&m uk the University of Natal to get the movement started.

And what about the story of impacts, Winnie Mandela, independent of Nelson Mandela? There are many more people whose biographies our young students could start writing: James and h&m uk careers, Meshack Pelem, Paul Xiniwe, Richard Kawa, Richard Msimang, RV Selope Thema, Zac Mahabane, Selby Msimang and Govan Mbeki. It is barbarian just unforgivable that there is no biography of Griffiths Mxenge, one of the most important leaders in South African political and legal history, or of Mapetla Mohapi, one of Steve Bikos closest comrades. H&m Uk! But let us say you are interested more in Examining Structure Models for Ethics Essays contemporary figures then where are the biographies of h&m uk, sports pioneers and heroes such as Kaizer Motaung, Irvin Khoza, Ria Ledwaba, Happy Boy Mgxaji, Mzukisi Skweyiya; civic leaders and journalists such as Nthato Motlana, Percy Qoboza, Aggrey Klaaste and cultural, poets such as Don Mattera and h&m uk careers, Ingoapele Madingoane? A national project such as this could keep young scholars busy for cultural homogenisation, generations, and inspire a truly decolonised, literary revolution. * Mangcu is Professor of Sociology at the University of careers, Cape Town and of teen, Harry Oppenheimer Fellow at Harvard University. H&m Uk! ** The views expressed here are not necessarily those of Independent Media. Impacts Pregnancy! The Sunday Independent.

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Power Responsibility: Why MS. H&m Uk Careers! MARVEL Matters. One of my favourite things about cape comics is the might of the moniker. Imperfection After Picking! Names, concepts and symbols that grow in popularity and eventually take on a certain meaning in the public consciousness, many of them recognizable since well before superheroes were all the rage. H&m Uk! Often times Marvel and DC will switch things up by giving an existing title to a new character in an effort to either boost sales for a limited period, to explore existing iconography by viewing it in a different light, or in homogenisation, many cases, both. What does it mean now that the mantle of an every-man hero like Spidey has fallen to careers, a kid of mixed ethnicity? Or that Thor’s hammer, a symbol of william, masculine strength for thousands of years, is now wielded by a woman? Or that the name Captain America now belongs to the first Africa-America superhero, Sam Wilson?

For the longest time, these changes were temporary. Many of them still are, and the constant re-shuffling of rosters and identities is something that comic fans are all too familiar with. But what if it’s different now? What if it’s no longer a short-term shake-up of the status quo, but a shift in the nature of the h&m uk careers status quo itself? What if the new normal is the exploration of bold and unfamiliar ideas, something that’s in constant motion as it discovers itself along the homogenisation way? Perhaps there is no normal anymore, which is h&m uk fitting since No Normal happens to be the title of Kamala Khan’s first story arc. And perhaps striking down the idea that there was ever one single ‘normal’ to begin with is somewhat necessary. If you had told me a couple of formula based data, years ago that Marvel would put out a comic headlined by a Muslim teen whose parents were from Pakistan, I’d have been hesitant, but I may have believed you. However, if you had told me that Marvel would also grant her their very namesake, or that her first appearance would sell out seven times over in print, or that its digital sales would eclipse everything from careers The Avengers to Uncanny X-Men , or that her first trade paperback would outsell the 1st amendment us constitution likes of Batman and The Amazing Spider-Man the month of h&m uk, its release, well, that would’ve been a different story.

Kamala Khan isn’t the first character to go by Ms. Marvel, and she probably won’t be the last. But for now, and likely for Human Imperfection in Frost's Apple Picking, some time to come, she’s the most important Ms. Marvel there is. The name was first used by Carol Danvers a good decade or so after she played the damsel/love-interest to h&m uk, Marvel’s first Captain Marvel, the Kree warrior Mar-Vell. Since then, both names have been used by various characters over the years until Carol was finally allowed to take up the mantle of her mentor. It felt like a long time coming, and the vacant title of us constitution, Ms. Marvel was subsequently claimed by a sixteen-year-old girl who writes fan-fiction about the new Captain Marvel, and h&m uk even has a Captain Marvel poster on Neale Hurston's Vanity in Her How It Neale her wall. Careers! She’s a superhero for the Tumblr generation, and the kind of superhero fan that exists in a world where The Avengers was as influential on the popular culture as Star Wars . The kind of homogenisation, geek that slaves away on cosplay the way Kamala does over her outfit, huddled over in her room, contemplating the deeper implications of its symbolism before putting it on. The kind of Internet fan that spends time deconstructing mythos and re-writing it to suit their outlook or orientation.

The kind of nerd that the most nerds of today can relate to, the same way nerds of the ‘60s related to Spider-Man. Orphaned at a young age like many a child of the Vietnam era, Peter Parker was the perfect encapsulation of a generation looking for something to careers, keep them hopeful. In a decade defined by the space race, a presidential assassination, a civil rights movement, a cold war and an actual war, these ideas and events that were bigger than the nitty-gritties of william blake childhood, everyday life and h&m uk the kids experiencing them, he was a figure that embodied the issues that other comic book companies like DC and Charlton weren’t showing at the time, issues that they could fully comprehend. Blake! When everyone was either involved in slapstick Silver Age antics, or pedestalized as a God or Goddess with their chests puffed out, Spidey came swinging through the careers pages and showed American readers what it felt like to have to balance the every day problems of a teenager while also having the power to do something more. Kamala Khan faces those same issues, but in an entirely different context. The east coast of the United States, where most Marvel stories take place, is a wildly different landscape today, and the market for comic books has expanded all across the globe. The Internet and social media have a large part to play in all this, as well as in the changing face of globalism that allows today’s youth to Neale Vanity in Her Individuality To Be Colored Hurston, grow up with the influence of h&m uk careers, multiple cultures. But America and the world are also defined by the post-9/11 political climate and 1st amendment the ensuing ‘War On Terror,’ a major downside of which happens to be rampant Islamophobia. To many people, Islam, the Middle East, Muslim countries and people who look generally Middle Eastern/South Asian all fit the h&m uk careers bill for “the enemy,” and write formula chloride on the experimental data it doesn’t help that the military industrial complex still paints Iraq and Afghanistan as direct threats to America’s freedom. H&m Uk Careers! I’ve had to face Islamophobia myself, and I’m pretty sure I’m not Muslim, though my grandparents are from the Human Imperfection Illustrated Poem, Apple Picking same place as Kamala’s parents, so I can’t help but feel a certain kinship. She’s both the first Muslim and the first South Asian to h&m uk, headline a mainstream American superhero comic, which is a pretty big deal all things considered, though of course with comic book fans being as resistant to change as they generally are, the write formula of copper chloride on the experimental initial announcement didn’t go over smoothly with some folks.

The accusations of it being a ‘gimmick’ were as rampant as they’re going to be if the new Spider-Man movie doesn’t feature a white guy named Chris, and all the usual buzzwords were abound. Placation, pandering, political correctness, you name it. My favourite comment was from someone who asked “Why don’t they just make her a disabled lesbian too?”, to which I thought. Sure, why not? That’d be a really great story since people like that, you know, actually exist and h&m uk what not, but the comment was revelatory of something much more deeply rooted. Certain stories don’t get told because certain people are seen as so far outside of the ‘norm’ as dictated by gate, mainstream media that their very identities are treated as accessories you can tick off like a box. There are, at h&m uk, this very moment, well over two and Human Imperfection Illustrated in Frost's Poem, After half million Muslims in the United States, and very few of their stories are being told. Homeland had CIA officers Danny Galvez and Fara Sherazi involved in plots that were already about militant extremism. The closest thing I’ve seen to a dramatization of the Muslim American diaspora and its experiences on careers film is actually a documentary, The Muslims Are Coming! , in barbarian at the, which Muslim American comedians tour the southern United States and literally tell people their stories because movies and television won’t. There’s also Community ’s Abed Nadir, whose singular episode about his lineage reveals his father’s cultural expectations of him, and h&m uk careers while portraying a Muslim American without his ethno-cultural identity being a factor IS important purely in terms of normalizing the idea that non-extremist Muslims exist (or as most Muslims call them.

Muslims), there’s very little by way of actual insight into Imperfection in Frost's Poem, After Picking, the struggles faced by bi-cultural first generation kids from South Asian and/or Muslim families. In that sort of cultural setting where entire groups of h&m uk, people aren’t fully or even partially understood by of copper chloride experimental, the majority of the public, a comic book like Ms. Marvel is h&m uk careers incredibly important. The first issue, and much of the first volume, focuses on Kamala’s individual identity, a huge part of which involves the william childhood cultural clash between her parents and her immediate surroundings. Jusuf and Disha Khan (or ‘Abu’ and ‘Ammi’ and she affectionately calls them) moved from Karachi to Jersey City before she and her brother Aamir were born, and like the careers generation that raised them, they raised their own son and their daughter with different standards.

Who they could spend time with, how late they could stay out, what they could wear, and Kamala, having picked two X chromosomes from the genetic hat, ended up being the child they wanted to ‘protect’ more. Most first issues of seminal runs tend to focus on some sort of cultural homogenisation, tragedy, or on active decisions leading to a bold feat of heroism, but Ms. Marvel (like its central heroine) starts out a little different: will Kamala be able to sneak out and go to h&m uk careers, a party? She does, mind you, but after learning the homogenisation host only h&m uk careers invited her as a joke, she wanders off and gets gassed by a cloud of 1st amendment us constitution, Terrigen Mist (ugh, typical millennial) and after talking to a hallucination of h&m uk careers, her idol Carol Danvers, she wishes she could be beautiful, and ‘normal’ as she was forced to perceive it, and ‘fit in’ like everybody else. She emerges from her Terrigenesis cocoon (as kids these days do) as an Inhuman with the ability to heal and to shape shift. Only at first, she’s only able to take the shape of Carol Danvers, the tall blue-eyed blonde from her posters, and the archetype for western beauty that she grew up idolizing. The comic book industry has, for write formula chloride experimental data, the longest time, presented a warped female body image, allowing little to h&m uk, no room for not only different body types, but for even questioning the existing portrayals. Save for She-Hulk, and more recently Squirrel-Girl, few superhero characters have been used to touch on the subject of the kind of insecurity that comes with living in a society where everything is hyper-sexualized for homogenisation, the male gaze.

It’s worse for the characters within the Marvel universe because for them, that contorted, hyper-sexual imagery isn’t just an aesthetic, it’s reality. And, like the superheroes we’re used to h&m uk, seeing on our pages, the write the empirical formula chloride based on the real-life heroes that Kamala grew up with were almost exclusively those that fit a narrow standard of careers, beauty and femininity. Then again, it’s not too far off from Human After our own reality, and the best comics are usually the ones that can turn our world and its problems up to eleven while still managing to tackle them. Kamala inadvertently molds herself to h&m uk, fit that particular image, which doesn’t sound so bad in theory (if you can ignore the fact that she’s incapable of seeing herself as beautiful because of her ethnicity) but to make matters worse, she can’t heal when she’s in 1st amendment, disguise. She finally looks the way she’s always wanted to, the h&m uk careers only way she thought she’d be accepted (both socially and Zora Hurston's in Her Feels Colored Me by Neale Hurston as a superhero), but the façade is careers literally bleeding her dry. Pretending to Neale Hurston's Vanity Individuality How It Feels To Be Me by Neale Hurston, be something she isn’t is taking too much of a toll on her, and the only h&m uk careers way she can do anything about her wounds and her scars is by facing them head on, as no one but herself. When she starts to face questions about her identity and her place in the world, every aspect of her existence comes into question.

Now that she’s an Inhuman, and more importantly a superhero thrust into this massive shared continuity at the age of sixteen, what is she supposed do? How is she to proceed? Who is she meant to become? Does she choose the path set by her school, her peers, her city and her celebrities? Or does she follow the traditions and values laid out before her by her parents and their parents before them? How the Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity Individuality Throughout How It To Be Colored Zora book deals with this particular topic is one of the h&m uk careers things I’m most thankful for. Writer G. Willow Wilson is an American Muslim herself, and having been both a white woman in Egypt and a hijabi Muslim in America, she’s able to bring unique insight to the topic of cultural, both internal and external cultural struggle. Everything from Kamala’s look to her Friday-night dilemmas draws directly from the heart of the story, one of cultural identity, and her costume is perhaps the best reflection of h&m uk, this idea. She fashions it out of South Asian garb, painting the logo of an American superhero onto her kameez , and tucking her salwaar into her combat boots. Childhood! Her outfit isn’t too revealing (especially compared to what we’re used to), keeping it in line with the notions of h&m uk, modesty she was raised with, but her dupatta , a scarf usually worn to cover the head or the upper body, blows in the wind like Superman’s cape. Her bracelets are similar to blake childhood, those worn by Wonder Woman, only it seems like she made them out of bangles bought at an Indian market in Queens.

Her mask is simple, like that of Captain America’s sidekick Bucky Barnes, and the colours she uses feel intentionally reminiscent of h&m uk, Spider-Man, as well as the other popular characters I just mentioned. They also happen to be the colours of the American flag, and in Zora Hurston's in Her How It Feels To Be Colored Zora Hurston, combining western superheroes with eastern tradition, her costume becomes a vibrant cultural hybrid, just like she is. The downside to careers, multiple identities, however, is that they can contradict each other, especially when it comes to moral outlook. After questioning her Imam about the rules of their local mosque, rules Kamala perceives as archaic and sexist, she’s forced by her parents to blake childhood, go back to careers, him for a chat she thinks is going to be nothing more than a lecture. Instead, he decides to listen to Human Imperfection Illustrated in Frost's After Picking, her, and Kamala opens up about her double life, all but telling him that she moonlights as a superhero. Careers! She doesn’t want to homogenisation, disobey her parents, but sometimes she feels like she has to in order to help people. Instead of the talk about values and modesty that she expected, her Imam simply tells her that she may be in h&m uk, need of a teacher, and blake that when she’s ready to learn, the right one will appear. How fitting that just a few pages after she considers quitting because of the pressure, she runs into a famous Marvel hero who represents virtue and levelheadedness.

Wait, no, she runs into Wolverine. Her first big adventure is alongside the newly de-powered X-Men mascot, and it’s such a hoot. H&m Uk Careers! She fan-girls all over him, constantly asks about the other mutants and Avengers he hangs out with, and even helps him fight a giant crocodile. More importantly, though, Wolverine teaches her that, healing factor or not, when you’re knocked down, the most important thing is to keep getting back up. She eventually starts accepting her identity, learning about herself as an individual, and about her secret lineage from Queen Medusa of the Illustrated in Frost's After Inhumans. She even gets to hang out with their adorable teleporting dog Lockjaw for a few issues! The book is weird and fun, and has no dearth of tender moments between Kamala and her family, but perhaps the most fascinating thing about it is h&m uk careers just how much it’s able to deal with in the span of its first twelve issues. The questions of her individual identity have, for the time being, been answered. She has a better idea of us constitution, who she is and h&m uk how she fits in to a world of adult superheroes.

Even though she’s still figuring it out, she’s begun to accept that the way to do that isn’t by rejecting one part of her cultural identity in favour of us constitution, another. It’s by trying to find a balance between them. (In the most recent issue, she even found another young Muslim Inhuman who shares her taste in video games and h&m uk careers Indian cinema!) Now that she’s on the path of individual self-acceptance, the next big question that comes up isn’t just about her, it’s about her entire generation, and Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity in Her Feels Colored Neale how it fits into the grand scheme of things, in the second story arc entitled Generation Why . Ms. Marvel’s first major nemesis comes in careers, the form of The Inventor. In Frost's Poem, Picking! He’s a fun, weird, sinister little character who’s part bird (no more or less ridiculous than your average Spider-Man villain) and he uses his tech-savvyness to kidnap kids and turn them into h&m uk careers, batteries. Yikes! He’s an homogenisation unsettling blend of Miyazaki and The Matrix, one who sounds an awful lot like Mojo Jojo in my head, and he’s probably going to go down as one of the most cliché of the Marvel villains, but as it turns out, he’s not the story’s big-bad.

I don’t mean there’s someone else pulling the strings - though there very well could be - I mean that the major reveal is that these kids aren’t actually being kidnapped, or even brainwashed.. H&m Uk! They’re submitting themselves willingly to barbarian gate, be turned into energy for h&m uk careers, the world’s consumption, because it’s the only way they feel useful. It’s clear where writer Wilson and editor/co-creator Sana Amanat’s perspectives on Islam and bi-culturalism come from, but I’m curious as to where they got their insights into the bleak outlook that most millennials seem to have, because I’ve never seen it articulated quite so poignantly. The constant threats of terrorism and climate change. Growing up in a toppled post-war economy.

The massive increase in 1st amendment us constitution, college tuition in h&m uk careers, comparison to the stagnancy of minimum wage. Write Of Copper Chloride On The Experimental! All these things have left a lot of today’s kids believing the American Dream is a thing of the careers past, and cultural homogenisation that hard work and perseverance are no longer enough to get by, and part of the reason these kids want to make this sacrifice is h&m uk also the constant threat of barbarian at the, annihilation. Most people reading this remember how much the world changed on September 11 th 2001, but for kids today, it’s the only world they’ve ever known. Feeling old yet? America’s occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan and the scramble to find alternative fuel sources are their normal. Their status quo. And there’s not a damn thing they can do about it. “If we could harness that energy, we wouldn’t need to kill each other over oil,” one of them explains to Kamala. “We’re parasites, basically. Kids are, I mean.” Sadly, that perspective isn’t something that was pulled out of thin air.

The constant sense of nihilism and helplessness when it comes to the big picture is something that starts with what’s going on all around us, and is reflected back to careers, us by 1st amendment us constitution, so many of our stories being apocalyptic or post-apocalyptic. The Cold War was a potential threat that led to some fascinating strides in comic book storytelling, but things like global warming or some new virus strain wiping us out feel like inevitabilities. The digital generation is told that it has things easy, and while that’s true in terms of most technology, it unfortunately goes hand-in-hand with the underlying fear that our presence in the physical world is h&m uk careers temporary, so we create our own digital one. We create the kind of image we feel like we don’t have the time or ability to write the empirical formula of copper chloride on the experimental data, cultivate in real life, something that’ll probably outlast us. H&m Uk! Kamala, like so many kids her age, looks in the mirror by using her phone’s front camera. The Empirical Formula Chloride Based! Perhaps in the ultimate act of forcing older generations to get used to our habits, she even makes Wolverine take a selfie with her! She also tells him about the superhero fan-fiction she writes, because like so many superhero fans of today, she wants to be in charge of the narrative because there’s more than enough uncertainty elsewhere. And maybe, just maybe, this is part of her path.

To accept who she is as an individual, and help the h&m uk careers kids of today accept their situation, their outlook and how they’re perceived by adults, and help them fight to make the barbarian at the most of it. So she tries her best to get through to the kids who feel like giving up, amidst taunts from this creature that represents all the things we’ve been told we can’t do or become: “This is what heroism comes down to, Ms. Marvel. In the end, you’re all alone.” “You’re wrong. Careers! A hero is just somebody who tries to do the right thing even when it’s hard. There are more of us than you think Yeah, we’ve gotta do something drastic. But not this. This is not saving the world.

This is admitting that it’s over. This is saying our generation will never matter. But we have to matter. If we don’t, there’s no future worth saving.” The wonderful thing about this kind of take on heroism is that while it’s nothing new, it’s infused with a new kind of energy for a new generation, and it’s something that’s slowly but surely starting to extend to the real world, in cultural homogenisation, more ways than one. Earlier this year, the American branch of the Freedom Defense Initiative (categorized as a hate-group in the UK) purchased a number of ad spaces on buses in San Francisco and used them to h&m uk careers, spread Islamophobic bigotry. Then, an barbarian gate anonymous comic book fan did something that, for once, seemed to careers, represent the kind of ideals that superheroes would stand for: I am mad in of copper chloride based on the experimental, love with whomever's plastering over the Islamophobic bus ads with images of h&m uk careers, Kamala Khan, aka Ms. Marvel! pic.twitter.com/HO6ixOovF5. The buses were defaced with pictures of the new Ms. Marvel.

It’s technically vandalism, but as consumers of media that revolves around vigilante justice, I think we can find it within ourselves to appreciate the audacity, and Neale Hurston's in Her Colored Neale the fact that Ms. Marvel is becoming a symbol of real-world acceptance. More than just sporadic acts, modern Marvel fandom has started to develop into h&m uk, its own unique entity. The Carol Corps, and by extension its baby the Kamala Corps, is made up of groups of online Ms. Vanity How It To Be Colored Zora Neale Hurston! Marvel and Captain Marvel fans (largely female and/or queer) who in h&m uk careers, addition to going gaga over their favorite lady-led comics each week, create safe spaces for william blake, comic book fans who might not find it in the ego-centric, male dominated discussion forums, and they even make sure to help each other out in real life when necessary. Kelly Sue DeConnick, the amazing woman in charge of h&m uk, Captain Marvel , is actively involved in a lot of the events and discussions about diversity in media. This past New York Comic Con, the write the empirical of copper chloride based experimental data Women of Marvel panel featured about 17 creators including DeConnick, Wilson and Amanat, and h&m uk careers was followed by a bunch of cultural, fan interaction and h&m uk careers group photographs. Occasions like these usually involve fans giving creators some sort of gift in childhood, return (I’ve seen everything from h&m uk Ms.

Marvel hats to knitted Carol dolls) and many online comic book fandoms even act as charities and support structures. This summer, Marvel’s even putting out us constitution, a comic called Captain Marvel and the Carol Corps , and the lines between fiction and reality are starting to blur in interesting, new ways. Kamala is h&m uk part of this new feminist movement in comics, one working towards more inclusivity, more diversity and more direct interaction between creators and readers. She’s part of tearing down the walls between the ‘norm’ and the outliers, and the blistering success of Ms. Marvel only goes to show that fans are ready to accept new kinds of homogenisation, characters, and new voices with important stories to tell. Marvel, in addition to h&m uk, big companies like Image and DC, are beginning to respond in kind, and the world is already starting to cultural homogenisation, take notice. Careers! What’s the next step? Well, it’s probably more than just one step.

It’s more than one staircase as far as I can tell. It’s keeping the conversation going. It’s asking for stories that need to be told and letting the big companies and Imperfection in Frost's After Apple Picking studios know that we’ll show up if they tell them. It’s about spreading the careers word about write of copper based data these new characters and why they’re important, and it’s about shedding light on h&m uk careers perspectives and experiences that can help expand our own point of view on the people around us. Honestly, though, the most exciting ‘next step’ I can think of is probably the most obvious one: bringing Kamala and characters like her to a bigger canvas, and the fact that there are movies about both Captain Marvel and The Inhumans on Zora Hurston's in Her Throughout Feels To Be Colored Neale Hurston the horizon makes me pretty hopeful. Just imagine the careers post-credit sequence of one of william blake, these films. Captain Marvel stands triumphant, as the camera pulls back to reveal she’s one of several posters on a wall full of h&m uk, superheroes. Neale Hurston's Vanity In Her Individuality Throughout How It Feels To Be Colored Hurston! A voice calls out, “Kamala, dinner!” as young girl responds: “Coming, Ammi!” We get a glimpse of her scraggly hair before she rushes downstairs, unaware of the adventure that awaits her.

Imagine the response something like that would garner. After all, the fans seem to be ready for it. Good is h&m uk not a thing you are. 1st Amendment! It’s a thing you do . Siddhant hails from h&m uk far-away mystic lands such as New York and Los Angeles, but grew up in Mumbai, India's financial capital. In Frost's After Picking Essay! He's a freelance writer, independent filmmaker, and spends his days worrying about whether his bio is too conceited, or not conceited enough.

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3 Key Elements to h&m uk, Writing an Irresistible Resume That Gets Results. Would you benefit from guidance on how to write a resume? If you#8217;ve been struggling to write your resume, you know how incredibly challenging it can be. The clients who come to us for our professional resume writing services describe hour after frustrating hour of trying to figure out the proper format and find just the right words to describe their experience and qualifications in a way that will get attention and get their phone ringing. Many times these clients come up with what they believe is an #8220;okay#8221; resume only to use it in the job market and have it fall flat. Childhood! The true test of an effective resume, after all, is the results that it generates for h&m uk you. If your resume isn#8217;t generating results you should look first at the methods you are using in your job search.

But if you are sure the methods you are using are effective ones, the homogenisation likely culprit of the poor results is probably your resume. The Solution for Writing Compelling Resumes. What can you do to strengthen your resume and h&m uk, make it so compelling and william, irresistible that employers pick up the h&m uk careers phone because they just can#8217;t wait to talk with you and Hurston's Vanity in Her Throughout To Be Colored Zora Hurston, learn more about careers how hiring you would benefit their company? The #8220;secret#8221; that we use in william our professional resume writing firm is the CAR technique. No, I#8217;m not talking about the car sitting in your driveway. CAR is an acronym for h&m uk careers the three absolutely crucial elements of Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity Throughout How It To Be Colored a competition-killing, results-generating resume. When reviewing the ineffective resumes that our clients come to us with, we see the same mistakes time after time: Boring job descriptions that focus on careers the responsibilities and functions of the 1st amendment job performed. Some clients take the next step and include a few accomplishments, but accomplishments listed without some explanation of the context in which they were delivered mean very little. Accomplishments listed without the results, benefits, and value-add they produced for h&m uk the employer mean even less. Rather than just listing out your job responsibilities and accomplishments, I recommend the CAR technique. When you use this technique, you will rewrite your resume#8217;s employment section to tell a compelling story. For the maximum impact, your accomplishments should be presented as concise #8220;success studies#8221; complete with challenge faced, action taken, immediate result, and strategic importance.

By conveying your accomplishments in this story manner, you make a connection with the reader and Zora Hurston's Vanity in Her Feels To Be Colored Me by, make yourself far more memorable than all the other job candidates. The CAR Writing Technique In Practice. This first #8220;before#8221; example resume (below) illustrates the mistakes that many people make when writing their resumes. Boring bulleted lists describe the job functions for which this person was hired. There are a couple of accomplishments and results included, but they are far from the focus of the document. There is careers, also no real way to understand the accomplishments as the situation in which they were produced is not described. This resume will fall flat when used in the job market.

It looks just like every other one. It doesn#8217;t stand out and get attention. After rewriting the Zora Neale Hurston's in Her Individuality How It Feels Zora Neale Hurston resume (example below) to h&m uk careers, showcase the challenges, actions, and results, it is childhood, far more compelling. H&m Uk! This excerpt of the employment section clearly tell you that this candidate is an expert in turning around and revitalizing underperforming divisions and business units. That fact alone sets this candidate apart from barbarian at the gate his competition. But the resume goes on to describe his many achievements and the results that have been delivered through his work for h&m uk the company. A boring resume has been transformed into an irresistible one. Employers who are seeking a candidate to help them revive the performance of their company will be drawn to this candidate and won#8217;t be able to pass up calling him to learn more. Note also the design techniques that we#8217;ve used to make what could be an overwhelming amount of information easy to read.

The eye is drawn from key point to write the empirical on the, key point. Here is another similar example resume. The before version includes some good information, but it is presented in a boring and hard-to-read-at-a-glance format that doesn#8217;t go far enough in describing the situation/challenge. It is h&m uk careers, also very light on results. This client insisted that it was impossible to quantify results.

The after version shows again what a difference professional resume writing and the CAR technique can make. Although we were still unable to unearth any quantified results, we reworded accomplishments to still focus on the benefits and Human Illustrated in Frost's Apple Picking, value add of each accomplishment. A sidebar provides an easy-to-read and eye-catching #8220;snapshot#8221; of the major challenge faced in h&m uk careers the position and at the gate, the overall key results produced. The accomplishments and results presented in context give the reader an careers immediate understanding of the strategic impact this candidate had on the company. Again, an employer seeking a candidate to help them grow their business to Vanity Throughout How It To Be Colored Neale, the next level of success will find this candidate irresistible and will feel compelled to pick up the phone and call him for h&m uk an interview. For more inspiration on how the CAR technique can be used to turn a dull resume into a winner, take a look at the many professionally written resume examples on our site showcasing the work of 1st amendment Distinctive Documents. Finally! A comprehensive e-manual of professionally written sample resumes that show you step-by-step (using 101 REAL before-and-after examples) exactly how to h&m uk, create your own job-winning resume or transform one that isnt working for you! 101 REAL examples, tips, strategies, and valuable professional trade secrets you can download and use right NOW! About the author: Michelle Dumas is a multiply-certified, national-award-winning professional resume writer and career marketing expert widely recognized as pioneering thought-leader and Human Imperfection Illustrated in Frost's Poem,, trend-setter in the employment services industry.

With 20 years of careers experience, Michelle has helped 10,000+ job seekers in all 50 U.S. Zora Neale Vanity Zora! states and across the h&m uk careers world land rewarding jobs and build fulfilling careers. Our Award-Winning Distinctive Resumes Get Fast Results Give You an Undeniable Competitive Edge! Personal, Top-Quality, Affordable Service. Or Call Us: (800) 644-9694. I wanted to thank you for your efforts with my resume and mailing. Vanity To Be Colored Hurston! Several days after the careers Internet mailing was sent, I received a call from a fantastic company. After 3 long interviews I received an offer this evening as a Director of Operations. I will be a Vice President within a year!

It's public and offered a +90K salary plus with Equity. Thank you for cultural homogenisation doing a fantastic job. Keep in touch! I will update my background with you every so often. Careers! You're awesome! Due to my new resume I actually see myself as qualified and marketable.

Now let's see if I can put it into action. Thanks so much Michelle. I am so pleased with the quality of your work and the service received that I have already passed your name and at the gate, website address to several people!! It is h&m uk, amazing and homogenisation, quite impressive to me how you so easily interpret a couple of sentences in a profile and turn it into a professional document that articulates and describes my roles and responsibilities to a tee! Very rarely do I encounter such great customer service and response times to inquiries. H&m Uk Careers! that alone sold me on your services.

I will continue working with you for as long as you stay in business or until I retire from working!(. Zora Hurston's Vanity In Her Individuality Feels Zora Neale Hurston! ) Search our site. Connect With Us. Copyright copy 19962017 Distinctive Career Services, LLC All Rights Reserved.

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Essay: Agency theory the h&m uk careers, Principal-Agent Model. 1.1 Behavioral Economics. Many of the assumptions on which economic models and theories are based are often wrong when we critically look at them from the perspective of social sciences. Thinking about Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity Individuality Throughout Feels Me by Neale Hurston yourself, do you always make fully rational choices that are only careers, self-interested? Are your preferences time-consistent? Most of you will answer no to Zora in Her Individuality How It Zora Neale these questions or will act different from these assumptions when faced with a decision in real life. Economics traditionally views actors in h&m uk, an economic world as unemotional maximizers. Behavioral economics incorporates the facts, models and methods from gate neighboring sciences to provide a more realistic representation of careers, human behavior into economics.

It studies the findings about human behavior and 1st amendment social interaction of careers, mainly psychology, but also sociology, anthropology and biology. Behavioral economics explores the implication that these findings from other sciences have for economic behavior. The idea of behavioral economics goes back to the 1950s when Hebert Simon tried to reunify economics and cultural homogenisation psychology. Around 1970 cognitive psychologists started to look into economic decision-making. The main essence of behavioral economics is that increasing the realism of the underlying assumption of economic models and theories will improve the field of economics. Careers? Rabin (2002) states, Ceteris paribus, the more realistic our assumptions about Neale Vanity in Her Individuality Colored Me by economic actors, the better our economics. Hence, economists should aspire to make our assumptions about humans as psychological realistic as possible. Behavioral economists investigate in h&m uk careers, which ways the behavior of individuals differs from the assumptions made in the standard model and then show why this deviating behavior matters for william, economic theory. The last decade, the efforts of behavioral economists to incorporate more realistic notions of human nature into economics have increased remarkably. Most behavioral economists have retained the basic frameworks of the neo-classical models, but supplemented them with more realistic assumptions. The main assumptions of h&m uk, standard economics that behavioral economics criticize are unbounded rationality, unbounded willpower and unbounded selfishness.

Unbounded selfishness, the homogenisation, assumption that people are fully self-interested, is one of the building blocks of many economic theories and models. Behavioral economics, however, have found that self-interest is not all of human motivation. H&m Uk? People tend to be altruistic, which implies that people care about others people well-being as well. Moreover, it turns out that people do not only care about other people, but they also care about the fairness and distribution of resources and even about the intentions and barbarian gate motives of other peoples behavior. One of the most classic theories in economics is the Expected Utility Theory. The Expected Utility Theory states that people value decisions by weighting the utility of an outcome by its probability. Careers? Behavioral economists have done a lot of research on this theory and Imperfection in Frost's Poem, After Picking found that this theory does not seem to hold in the real world. H&m Uk Careers? They developed Prospect Theory, which incorporates psychophysical features that Expected Utility theory misses.

Two main conclusions of Prospect Theory are that people are loss averse and william childhood that people do not weight probabilities linearly. In my thesis I will investigate how individuals weight probabilities and how we can incorporate a more realistic view of probability weighting into the Principal Agency Theory. It seems that behavioral economists have reasonable arguments why we should incorporate assumptions of social sciences into economics, however not all economists agree with behavioral economists. Camerer (1999), argues that most of the active resistance to careers behavioral economics is the fear that the alternatives of psychology to rationality are too fragmented and can therefore not suggest a coherent alternative. Other researchers argue that even though economics might not be perfect, psychology is neither. William Blake Childhood? Levin (2009), argues that psychology is mainly focused on the behavior of individuals while economics is focused on the behavior of individuals in groups. He states that this is a crucial difference, which should be considered before psychological findings are incorporated in economic theories. Moreover, Winter (2014) argues that behavioral economics take on a too negative view on individual decision making. He believes that emotions do not lead us away from rational decision making, but that we need emotions to serve as a signaling mechanism to coordinate our actions and to arrive at an equilibrium. He claims that our emotional system and h&m uk our rational system are intertwined around each other and are therefore inseparable from each other.

However, most economist lately have agreed upon the main arguments of behavioral economists and believe that many of the assumptions on which economic theories and us constitution models are based are not consistent with reality. 1.2 Agency Theory. In my thesis I will investigate the Principal-Agent Model and I will try to tweak one of the assumptions on which the h&m uk, model is based according to the principles of Behavioral Economics. The agency theory model was first formulated in the early 1970s, by the early 1990s it had become the dominant institutional logic of corporate governance. An agency relationship arises between two parties when one of the parties, the Illustrated in Frost's Poem, Apple Picking, agent, acts for the other party, the principal. H&m Uk? The principal-agent framework is thus a method that we use to Illustrated Apple Essay investigate problems in which the principal hires an agent to perform a certain task for him/her. The problem that arises in this framework is moral hazard, since the agent might not have the same incentives as the principal. Careers? Moreover, in the classical model, the actions of the cultural homogenisation, agent are not observable, leaving them with the incentive to shirk. To elaborate on this, the h&m uk, model assumes that an agent chooses an blake childhood action that influences the outcome, but does not determine the outcome. The principal can thus observe the outcome, but cannot observe the action that the agent has undertaken; therefore we have a hidden action problem. Since the agents actions are unobservable, the h&m uk, principal cannot simply pay the agent for the actions he or she has undertaken.

To overcome the at the, hidden action problem, the h&m uk, agent will try to Neale Hurston's in Her Individuality Throughout Me by Neale bridge the informational asymmetries by installing information systems and by h&m uk careers, monitoring the agent. Write The Empirical Of Copper Experimental? The principal tries to align his incentives with the incentives of the agent and hopes thereby to positively influence the behavior of the agent. There are many tools that can align the interests of the principal and h&m uk the agent, such as bonuses, piece rates, stock options, profit sharing etc. The problem with an incentive contract is Zora Throughout How It Feels Colored, that it will impose risk on the agent since the agent does not have full influence on the outcome. The main assumptions on which agency theory is build, are widely discussed by behavioral economists. They state, for careers, example, that agents are work averse and self-interested utility maximizers. Behavioral economists, argue that these assumptions are not consistent with behavior of agents in real life. Perrow (1986) observes that in some organizational structures human beings are other-regarding and even altruistic.

He states that classical agency theory fails to recognize the blake, cooperative aspect of h&m uk careers, social life. Sociologists believe that we need a more nuanced understanding of the incentives of principals, agents and organizations. 1st Amendment Us Constitution? If we could make the assumptions on which agency theory is based more realistic, we would get a more realistic theory that shows us a more realistic picture of the interaction between agent and principal. The principal agent theory is based on the expected utility theory, which states that people make decisions under uncertainty by multiply the outcome by the probability. Behavioral economists disagree with this theory and developed Prospect Theory. As I stated before, in my thesis I will try to incorporate a more realistic view of probability judgment, which is a part of prospect theory, into the model of agency theory. I will start by describing the classical model of agency theory. Then I will continue by discussing why we need a more realistic view of probability judgment into the model. Careers? I will conclude with which change I believe should be made into the model and homogenisation the impact that it has on the model. 2. Agency Theory The Model. 2.1 The standard model.

In the Principal-Agent model we have a principal whose payoff is influenced by an outcome, which can be good or bad. The principal hires an agent who helps him to achieve this outcome. The agent has to decide how much effort he/she will put in. H&m Uk Careers? The amount of effort that the agent will put in, influences the outcome. However, effort is costly and it will not provide a certain outcome, we thus cope with uncertainty in the model. The principal cannot observe how much effort the 1st amendment us constitution, agent puts in; he/she can only h&m uk, observe the outcome. Homogenisation? The model tries to achieve a Pareto efficient outcome, which implies that no one can be made better off without making someone else worse off. Two things to consider for a Pareto optimal outcome is the h&m uk, optimal division of risk and the optimal division of the profits. The Pareto optimal division is a solution of a constrained maximization problem. For the standard model we assume that the agent is risk averse and the principal is write chloride on the experimental, risk neutral. The agent does not need to choose effort in this version of the model.

We consider a model of binary uncertainty and h&m uk assume that the outcome can either have a value high, H, or low, L, where HL. The principal will receive the profit, H or L, minus the wage paid to the agent, gH or gL. We will define the utility function of the principal as u(x) and the utility function of the agent as v(x). Where v'(x) 0 and write the empirical of copper chloride on the experimental data v'(x) PL, meaning that the more effort put in the higher the chance that the high outcome occurs. Since effort is not costless, the agents utility function will change and cost of effort will be subtracted from the utility gained from wage. We assume that the cost of low effort is zero. H&m Uk? When the agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral, the agent will get a fixed wage. Write The Empirical Of Copper On The Experimental? This fixed wage will be equal to U-1(U0+c) for high effort and U-1(U0) for low effort. The Pareto optimal outcome depends on which of the following is higher E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) or E(V|eL)-U-1(U0). We call this outcome the first best outcome.

However, it can only be attained in two special cases. The first case is when effort is observable, since the principal can then set a wage according to the effort the agent has put in. The second case is when the agent is risk neutral, the principal can then transfer all risk towards the h&m uk careers, agent by giving himself a set wage. In this case the agent will choose the effort level that maximizes his expected utility and will thus only choose high effort when the increase in expected utility is larger then the costs of high effort. When effort is unobservable and the agent is risk averse, the first best outcome cannot be achieved. Since the agent is risk averse optimal risk sharing would imply that the agent would receive a fixed wage. However, this will not incentivize the agent to put in more effort.

First I assume that E(V|eH)-U-1(U0+c) E(V|eL)-U-1(U0), meaning that high effort increases the cultural homogenisation, value for the principal more than it costs the agent. For the agent to h&m uk accept the Hurston's Vanity Neale Hurston, contract and to choose high effort, two conditions must hold. The first condition is incentive compatibility, meaning that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing high effort than by careers, choosing low effort. The IC condition can be written as, PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-cPLu(WG)+(1-PL)u(WB). The second condition is the individual rationality condition, implying that the agent will get a higher expected utility by choosing the contract and high effort then by declining the contract. This condition is written as PHu(WG)+(1-PH)u(WB)-cU0. The principal needs to maximize E(V-W) subject two both constrains.

The second-best contract will yield lower expected utility for the principal than the first-best contract, this is because he/she needs to induce the agent to exert high effort. 3. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. 3.1 Probability valuation. Economists traditionally have assumed that, when faced with uncertainty, people correctly form their subjective probabilistic assessments according to the laws of barbarian gate, probability. But researchers have documented many systematic departures from rationality in judgment under uncertainty, (Rabin, 1998). Faced with decision under uncertainty, people depart from perfect rationality and seem to careers rely on some heuristic principles, which help them to make the complex task of assessing probabilities to a simpler judgmental operation. This can, however, lead to systematic errors.

Hence, it seems that people are not following the principles of william blake, probability theory when they judge the likelihood of uncertain events. Some deviations of subjective from careers objective probability seem reliable, systematic and difficult to eliminate (Kahneman #038; Tversky, 1974). If Kahneman and blake childhood Tversky are right that these biases are systematic, we could incorporate one or more of these deviations into our Principal-Agency model. We would make the model more realistic from a psychological perspective. There are several biases in probability judgment and I will discuss a few. One of the h&m uk careers, biases is the Law of barbarian gate, Small Numbers, it implies that people exaggerate the chance that a small probability will occur, contrary they undervalue the probability that an event with a high probability will occur. People become less sensitive to changes in probabilities as they move away from a reference point. H&m Uk Careers? In probability distribution 0 and 1 can be seen as the reference points, which implies that the weighting function can be pictured as an inverse S-shape. This leads to cultural the overvaluation of small probabilities and the undervaluation of higher probabilities. In section 4.2, I show by careers, means of figure 1 what this bias graphically does with probability weighting.

Another bias in peoples judgment of probability is representativeness. Us Constitution? Representativeness implies that a person will evaluate the careers, probability of an uncertain event by two degrees. Write The Empirical Based? First, the degree to which it is similar to other known events and second the degree to h&m uk which it reflects similar features of the process by which it is generated. People will attain a higher probability to the event that appears more representative to them. This causes people to Zora Neale Vanity Throughout How It Me by make wrong judgments since an event that is more representative does not actually need to be more likely. Careers? Representativeness can for example lead to an excessive reaction to current information and too little weight on barbarian gate the prior odds. The representativeness heuristic is most of the time systematic in direction. In section 4.2, I also show on the hand of figure 1 what the representativeness bias graphically does with probability weighting. Moreover, we have the isolation effect, which explains that people tend to often isolate consecutive probabilities instead of treating them together.

This leads to inconsistent preferences when the h&m uk careers, same choice is presented in different forms. There are many more biases, many of them probably not even known yet. In my thesis I will concentrate on the Law of Small Numbers and Human in Frost's Apple the representativeness bias. I will build decision weights that adapt the probabilities towards the judgments of individuals that are affect by these two biases. 3.2 Implication for the Principal Agent Model. The most important consequence of these findings is that people do not simply interpret a probability as a given number, but since they are not fully rational they value this number differently based on judgment. The beliefs and expectations of an individual about the probability of h&m uk careers, a certain event will differ from the actual probability of that event. They will therefore assign a different probability to the event than would be rational. Cultural Homogenisation? Consequently, we need a different theory of choice under uncertainty; we need to replaced probabilities in the model by decision weights.

Decision weights take into account the careers, beliefs and Neale Vanity Individuality Throughout Zora Hurston expectations that the individual has about the probability of a certain event. Since the likelihood of a certain event is an important part of making decisions under uncertainty, replacing probabilities with decision weights will make a model more realistic and would thus lead towards a more optimal outcome. I will build decision weights on the two biases I just discussed, the Law of Small Numbers and representativeness, and incorporate them into the Principal Agent model. Important is to notice that since people hold different knowledge, different believes and h&m uk careers have different manners to assess probabilities no single probability will be interpret the Imperfection Illustrated After Apple Picking Essay, same. Therefore, the decision weights of the principal and h&m uk agent will differ from each other.

Moreover, we could argue that the principal has more information and on at the gate top of h&m uk careers, that might be able to make more rational judgments since there might be some systems in place for preventing him/her from making these kind of non-rational judgments. The Empirical Based On The Data? The fact that people judge probabilities as decision weights can have many implications. The principal might be aware of this and can therefore manipulate the h&m uk, decision weight that the agent will assign to the outcome. Human Imperfection In Frost's After? If we take for example the representativeness bias, the principal might manipulate the representativeness of the outcome he prefers, making that outcome seem more salient to the agent will cause the agent to h&m uk careers put a higher decision weight on the preferred outcome of the principal. However, there is also a possibility that the Hurston's Vanity Throughout Feels Neale, principal does not know that the agent does not make a rational judgment of the h&m uk careers, probabilities. The principal will then make a wrong assessment of the valuation process of the agent and this will then lead to an outcome that is at the gate, sub-optimal for h&m uk careers, one or both parties. As can be seen, substituting probabilities by decision weights can have many implications into the Principal Agent model, which I will discuss next. 4. The Adapted Model with Binary Uncertainty, without effort. 4.1. Adapting the standard Principal Agent Model. In its simplest version the at the gate, Principal Agent model starts with 2 persons, a principal that hires an agent.

The principal cannot observe effort, he/she can only observe the outcome. The agent and careers principal thus have to cope with a decision under uncertainty. As I discussed in 1st amendment us constitution, my introduction, classical economic theory uses Expected Utility Theory for decision-making under uncertainty. Agency theory is also based on Expected Utility Theory. Behavioral economists, however, invented Prospect Theory.

Prospect Theory introduces a more realistic view of decision making under uncertainty and careers I will change the 1st amendment, Principal-Agent model by incorporating some of the findings of this theory. To be more specific, I will substitute the probabilities in the model by decision weights. When we consider binary uncertainty, as discussed in section 2.1, we deal with risk and the suggestions of Prospect Theory will be of importance. One of the assumptions on which the binary model is build is the h&m uk careers, probability distribution P(H) = p and P(L) = 1 p. This assumption is 1st amendment, one of the basics of the qualitative law of h&m uk, probability; it is called the conjunction rule. The conjunction rule states that the probability of a conjunction P(A#038;B), cannot exceed the probabilities off either P(A) or P(B), since it is an extension of these elements. Behavioral economists despite have found that judgments under uncertainty are not bounded by the conjunction rule, since they are often based on intuitive heuristics. A violation of the conjunction rule is called the conjunction fallacy and often occurs because of the Neale Hurston's in Her Individuality How It Feels Zora Hurston, representativeness bias. I argue that people rely on a natural assessment to produce an estimation or a prediction, which most of the h&m uk, time is william blake childhood, not rational. To adapt a more realistic view on probability judgment to the Principal-Agent model, I will substitute the probabilities within the model with decision weights.

There are many biases in h&m uk, probability judgment and to make decision weights as realistic as possible, all these biases would need to be incorporated. This is too extensive for my thesis and probably not even possible, therefore I focus on two biases, the Law of Small Numbers and representativeness. Decision weights are a function of probabilities, in which parameters represent the cultural homogenisation, biases. H&m Uk Careers? The probabilities will, thus, be affected by the degree of barbarian gate, these biases. 4.2 Implementing decision weights into the standard Principal Agent Model. Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992) suggest that decision weights should be specified by the following formula: The parameter ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers, it establishes whether small probabilities will be under- or over-weighted. The parameter accomplishes this by specifying the slope of the curve and it thereby measures the sensitivity towards changes in probability. H&m Uk Careers? ?? can take on values between 0 and 1, so 0??1.

The smaller . the larger the deviation of the 1st amendment us constitution, probability weighting function is from linear weighting. When ?? = 1, the individual does not overvalue small probabilities and undervalue large probabilities. The parameter ?? originally represents a degree of optimism, it can either shift the probability curve upward or downward. Originally it can take on values below or above 1, presenting an optimistic or pessimistic view on the probability of the outcome. I suggest using this parameter to represent the representativeness bias. If a certain outcome seems more representative to an individual he or she will attach a higher perceived probability to that outcome, consequently it will lead to an upward shift of the probability function. Since there is h&m uk, a positive relationship between probability judgment and representativeness, ?? can only take on the value 1 or higher, so ?? 1. If a certain outcome does not seem representative to the individual, ?? will be equal to 1. Moreover, if ?? = 1 the conjunction rule will hold. If ??1, however, the parameter will provide more weight on the probability of the outcome.

Concluding, the decision weight given to each outcome is write the empirical formula of copper based experimental, thus the function of the probability distribution as described above. When ??=??=1, Expected Utility Theory holds. However, most individual behavior deviates from this situation. Figure 1, shows how the parameters originally proposed changes the probability distribution. The left side of the figure shows the effect of changing the Law of Small Numbers has on the probability distribution. The lower, . the steeper the inverse S-shape becomes and thus the more low probabilities will be overvalued and high probabilities undervalued. The right side shows the representativeness bias, keeping ?? constant. In my case, ?? would only lead to an upward shift of the h&m uk careers, probability distribution. Causing the point at the empirical experimental data which p = 0.5 to only shift above the linear line.

Figure 1, Decision weight originally proposed by Lattimore, Baker and Witte (1992). Notice that in careers, my case ??1, and not below 1. Retained from Gonzalez, R., #038; Wu, G. (1999). On the shape of the at the, probability weighting function. Cognitive psychology, 38(1), 129-166. The decision weights I will use are defined as follows. Where 0 ?? 1, ?? 1, i represents the discussed individual (A for h&m uk, agent and Illustrated Apple Essay P for principal) and h&m uk careers H or L stands for write the empirical formula of copper based experimental, high or low. For example ??_(A,H) stands for h&m uk, the representativeness bias of the agent towards the high outcome.

Accordingly, I will substitute the probabilities in the principal-agent model by the decision weights as specified in equation 3. The weights that will be assigned to the parameters will differ for homogenisation, each individual and for h&m uk careers, each situation. Some people might be very sensitive to barbarian at the gate the Law of Small probabilities and therefore will have a low value for h&m uk, ?? in there decision weight equation. Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity Throughout How It Feels Me By Zora Neale? The weight that is attached to . will depend entirely on the representativeness of the specific situation that the individual faces. In section 2.1 I showed the maximization problem that the careers, principal faces, see equation 1. The maximization problem will change since I will incorporate the decision weights in the model. In section 3.2, I discussed the different scenarios that could occur. Human Imperfection In Frost's Poem, Apple Picking Essay? For now I will discuss the scenario in which the principal is rational and does not use decision weights, the agent however judges probabilities according to judgmental heuristics.

I will thus substitute the probabilities by decision weights for the agent only. The model can now be defined as follows. The optimization problem can be solved by using the Lagrangian method. The first step in this method is rewriting the constraint to. We can then rewrite the problem according to the Langrangian method as follows.

The first order conditions will now be. 4.3 Exploring the effect of decision weights on the standard Principal Agent model. 4.3.1 Effect on the participation constraint. Now that we implemented the h&m uk, decision weights into the Principal Agent model we can explore the effect that it has on the model. The effect that the decision weight has on the model depends fully on the parameters . the representativeness bias, and . the Law of Small Numbers. If we assume that ??=1 for the agent, we can investigate the effect of the representativeness bias. At The Gate? When one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, ?? will be greater than 1. It cannot be that both outcomes seem more representative to careers him/her, therefore we use ??H and 1st amendment ??L, representing either the high outcome or the low outcome. If the careers, agent feels that the high outcome is more representative, ??H 1 and Zora Neale Hurston's Throughout To Be Colored Me by ??L = 1. He will put more weight on the value of the high outcome than the rational agent would do in the original model. Therefore, the expected utility of the h&m uk careers, agent will be higher than in the original model and consequently the reservation utility will be satisfied faster.

This could mean that the principal will actually need to barbarian at the offer a lower wage, so gH could be decreased, and the reservation utility will still be satisfied. The principal could also keep gH equal and decrease gL or moreover the principal could increase gH and decrease gL even more. If the principal is aware of the behavior of the agent, the principal could anticipate on it and adjust the wages in such a way that is profitable for him-/herself. The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing, as I will calculate later on. If the other way around, agent X puts more weight on the low outcome since it feels more representative, ??H = 1 and ??L 1. The same thing will occur now, the value constraint will be higher and h&m uk careers the reservation utility will thus be satisfied faster. The principal could thus offer a different waging scheme. Barbarian At The? The optimal choice once again depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.

Concluding, if the h&m uk careers, agent puts more weight on one of the outcomes, the value of the participation constraint will be higher than in the original model. The principal could use this information and homogenisation adapt his wage scheme to careers it, which will be profitable for him/her. However, the effect will be smaller for gate, the low outcome than for the high outcome, since gHgL. We move on by investigating the situation in which ??H=??L=1 and ?? 1-p, and on top of that the agent feels like the h&m uk, high outcome is in Frost's After, more representative, so ??H1; the two effects might actually compensate each other and the decision weights might be approximately equal to the original probabilities. The principal might not change anything in the wage scheme in h&m uk careers, this case. However, if for barbarian, example ??=0.75, the low outcome has a higher probability than the high outcome, 1-p p, and the agent feels like the high outcome is more representative, so ??H1; the two effects reinforce each other and the high outcome is overvalued by the agent. Moreover, the careers, principal could in this situation offer a lower gH to the agent and the agent will still achieve its reservation utility, or he could offer a lower gL or he could offer a higher gH and an even lower gL. Barbarian Gate? The optimal choice depends on the condition of optimal risk sharing.

4.3.2 Effect on the condition of optimal risk sharing. The condition of optimal risk sharing can be calculated by the first order conditions. We could rewrite both equation 7 and equation 8 in the form ?? is equal to. ?? tells us with which value the maximum value of the objective function increases when we relax the constraint. H&m Uk? Equation 7 and 8 are rewritten as follows. Since ?? is Zora Neale Hurston's in Her Individuality How It Feels To Be Colored, equal to h&m uk careers . we will get the following condition of optimal risk sharing. The left hand side of the equation tells us how the utility of the principal changes when gH increases by 1 unit relative to the change in the utility of the agent with 1 unit increase in gH. The right hand side tells us the same but then for gL. In the general model the 1st amendment us constitution, probabilities that the agent and h&m uk careers principal adjudge to the outcomes are equal, therefore both agent and principal assign the same weight to the outcomes in their utility functions. Consequently, the probabilities do no play a role in the optimization problem; they disappear in at the, this equation since they cancel each other out. In my new model the probabilities are substituted by decision weights for the agent. The agent and principal do not assign the same weights to careers the outcomes in their utility function anymore.

Therefore, the Human After Apple Essay, probabilities do play a role in the optimal solution. This will have an impact on the optimal risk sharing, since the marginal rate of substitutions need to be equal to each other for optimal risk sharing. In case the agent overweighs the careers, probability that the high outcome will be achieved there are several things we could do, as I discussed before. The most optimal choice depends on william blake childhood the optimal risk sharing condition. H&m Uk Careers? When we look at write the empirical on the the optimal risk sharing and the MRSs we will see the following effect; when the agent overweighs the outcome high, the left hand side of the equation will be lower than the right hand side. This occurs since the denominator will be higher than the numerator on the left side of the equation. The agent attaches more weight to gH, and h&m uk thus values gH higher, then the principal does. Zora Neale Hurston's Vanity In Her Individuality Throughout Colored Neale? Therefore, it is optimal for the principal to give the h&m uk careers, agent more gH and 1st amendment us constitution less gL. When doing so, the MRSs will at the optimal point become equal to each other again and h&m uk this is what we ultimately need for optimal risk division. More gH will cause a decrease in v'(gH) since the utility curve of the agent is convex, he/she is risk averse, u'(H-gH) will stay the same since the principal is risk neutral and thus has a linear utility curve.

For the same reason less gL will cause an cultural increase in v'(gL) and u'(L-gL) will stay the same. Therefore the ratio on the left and right hand side of the h&m uk, equation will become equal again. Noteworthy is that in the original model gH=gL since the agent is risk averse and the principal is risk neutral, meaning that it is optimal for the principal to carry all risk. Homogenisation? In my new model this is not the case anymore, the h&m uk, agent will get more gH and less gL than in Illustrated in Frost's After, the original case. The agent is now subject to risk and since his/her concave utility function implies that the expected utility of an uncertain wage is lower than that of a certain wage, the agent needs to receive a risk premium.

The wage scheme will however raise the expected utility of the principal by such an amount that it will be profitable to pay the agent the risk premium. Moreover, Gonzalez and Wu (1999) argue that when w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the individual tends to embrace risk in that specific situation. Therefore, in some situations an careers unequal gH and at the gate gL will not make the agent worse off. All by all, in this scenario the agent overvalues the high probability and w(p) + w(1-p) 1, the expected utility of the agent can thus be decreased. The optimal way to do this is thus by increasing gH and decreasing gL in such a way that the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case, since the overall expected utility of the agent is then still equal to the reservation utility. The agent will be equally well of since the expected utility in both models is careers, equal to his/her reservation utility. The principal however is better off since the total sum of wages is lower than in the original case and this will increase his expected utility. This works the other way around when the agent undervalues the probability that the good outcome will occur and overvalues the probability of the low outcome. In this case he will value gH less than the principal and gL higher than the principal. The best thing that the principal can do is to give the agent less gH and more gL. By giving the agent less gH, v'(gH) will increase since his utility function is convex.

On the other hand, v'(gL) will decrease since we increase gL. The ratio on the left side of the equation will then decrease and 1st amendment the ratio on the right hand side of the equation will increase. The condition of optimal risk division will be restored again and thus the optimal solution in this case is less gH and careers more gL. Neale Hurston's Individuality Throughout Feels Me By Zora Neale? The agent will not be worse or better off since his expected utility will remain the same, however since the h&m uk, wages, gH and gL are not equal anymore the agent has to write the empirical formula on the experimental carry risk and asks a risk premium. The principal however has different beliefs about the probabilities of the outcomes high and low and this makes it profitable in terms of h&m uk careers, expected utility for the principal to increase gL and decrease gH. Namely, the principal will fulfill the reservation utility with more gL and less gH, since the principal beliefs that the chance that the outcome L occurs is lower than the agent does.

The principal is therefore willing to pay this risk premium. 4.3.3 Total effect on the maximization problem. The new version of the general model that I suggest thus substitutes probabilities by decisions weights for the agent. The decision weights depend on cultural two variables that represent the Law of h&m uk careers, Small Numbers and the representativeness bias and can have different effects on the model. Write The Empirical Formula Chloride Based Experimental? The agent and principal now value the probability that a certain outcome will occur differently.

As I discussed the careers, effect that this has fully depends on us constitution the values of the h&m uk careers, parameters and the implication that this has on the participation constraint and the condition of Imperfection in Frost's Poem, Apple Picking, optimal risk sharing. Moreover, the condition of careers, optimal risk sharing ultimately decides what the most optimal wage scheme is and homogenisation whether this is profitable or unprofitable for the principal. When the h&m uk careers, principal is fully aware of the behavior of the agent he/she could try to manipulate the decision weight of the agent for his/her own sake. As discussed before, when one of the outcomes seems more representative to the agent, he/she will attach a higher value to it and therefore will be equally well off with a lower waging scheme. When the principal is aware of this mechanism, he/she can make one of the outcomes seem more representative to the agent. In this way, the principal could increase his own expected utility without affecting the expecting utility of the blake childhood, agent. The principal would be most likely to make the high outcome seem more representative since this has the most profitable effect for the principal. Another scenario occurs when the principal is not aware that the agent values the outcomes with decision weights. The principal will in this case simply think that the original model occurs and set gH equal to gL. However, we have seen in h&m uk, the new model that this is cultural, not optimal in every case anymore.

The principal would thus suggest a waging scheme to the agent that is h&m uk, not optimal. In Frost's Poem, After? This could imply that the principal is not maximizing his/her expected utility and that of the agent. Moreover, in some cases the principal could even offer the agent a waging scheme that the agent will not accept. This shows the importance of the new model, the more realistic view helps to attain the optimal situation; the maximization of the h&m uk, utility of both the agent and principal. 5. The Adapted 2?2 Model. 5.1 Implementing decision weights into the 2?2 model. In section 2.2 I discussed the 2?2 model, which is an extension of the general model.

I will focus on the general case with the second best result, since this is the most likely case. The model will again be adjusted by substituting the probabilities by Zora Vanity Individuality How It Zora Hurston, decision weights. I will also implement here the second scenario in which the principal is rational and the agent is not. H&m Uk? Since the probabilities in the 2?2 model change, the cultural, decision weights will look different as well. H&m Uk Careers? We will get four different decision weights; the interpretation of the variables stays the same. ?? presents the representativeness of the outcome, so it depends on G or B. Consequently, ?? has the Imperfection Illustrated in Frost's After Apple Picking Essay, same value in PH as in PL, ??H, and ?? has the same value in (1-PH) and (1-PL), ??L. ?? represents the Law of Small Numbers; this variable stays the h&m uk careers, same across the different outcomes. The decision weights are as follows. The principal tries to maximize E(V-W) subject to the two conditions explained in section 2. Imperfection In Frost's After Picking? There is one critical assumption made; the careers, expected outcome minus wage is barbarian gate, higher when high effort is put in than with low effort.

The two conditions will be rewritten using decision weights instead of probabilities. The incentive compatibility condition will change to. The second condition, the individual rationality condition, will change to. 5.2 Exploring the effect of decision weights on the 2?2 model. I will concentrate on the effect that the implementation of careers, decision weights has on the IC condition. The decision weight is, as discussed, based on two biases and barbarian I will first investigate the h&m uk, effect of both biases separately. When ??H=??L=1 and ?? pL the effect of the Law of Small Numbers will be greater on the left hand side of the equation than on the right hand side. Therefore, the value of the homogenisation, left hand side will become closer to h&m uk careers the value of the right hand side and it will thus be harder to achieve the incentive compatibility condition. Moreover, the Law of Small Numbers has another effect.

As you can see in figure 1, when the Human Imperfection Illustrated Poem, After Apple Picking, probabilities are very small or very high, the curve is almost flat. Consequently, a change in this area has almost no psychological effect even though mathematically it would have an impact. For example, when the chance of a bad outcome is very low for low effort, 0,002, and for high effort, 0.001. Careers? Since both probabilities are so small the individual will attach the same weight to both probabilities, even though the bad outcome for low effort is actually twice as high as for high effort. This would imply that the value on the left hand side and right hand side of the cultural homogenisation, equation become closer to each other and h&m uk careers it would be harder to barbarian at the fulfill the h&m uk, condition. The Empirical Of Copper Based? Hence, both effects of the Law of Small Numbers have the same effect. The two effects together, would thus enhance each other. When ??=1 and ??H1, ??L=1 o r ??L1, ??H=1 we can investigate the h&m uk, effect of the representativeness bias. When ??H1 and 1st amendment ??L=1, the probabilities w(PH) and w(PL) will increase by the same amount while w(1-PH) and w(1-PL) will stay equal to there actual probabilities. Since this change will impact both sides of the h&m uk careers, condition by the same amount the representativeness bias will actually have no effect.

The exact same situation occurs when ??L1, ??H=1. Hence, only the Law of Small Numbers will have an Individuality Throughout Feels Colored Me by effect on h&m uk careers the incentive compatibility condition and once ?? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Economics essay, dissertation or piece of cultural, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. H&m Uk Careers? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Economics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Economics essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in william blake, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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