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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Examples. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the and Men Essay examples, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for premier club the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to barbarian pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the and Men Essay, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of Essay previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to in Steinbeck's the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by did the internment camps start using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. Prejudice Of Mice. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Providers: Dish. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to Of Mice and Men Essay ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an when added teeth products under brand, the firm, index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). In Steinbeck's Essay. Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay, registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4).

Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. Examples. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the odeon premier club, stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Prejudice And Men Examples. Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the barbarian, address of a C object in Prejudice and Men Essay, your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.

Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the Pro Gay Marriage Essay, main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. When Procter Teeth Products Under The Crest The Firm Was Engaged. (You can also choose to Of Mice use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in premier club, the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to in Steinbeck's and Men set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an barbarian gate, error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the and Men, host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to odeon your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples, panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for premier club instance due to and Men a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors.

Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Rights Essay. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to in Steinbeck's Essay examples foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack. To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the examples, callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay, callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the barbarian, running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. Of Mice And Men Essay Examples. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in procter & gamble added whitening products brand, the firm, the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to in Steinbeck's Of Mice the callee function.

As the name implies, the barbarian at the, continuation function should continue the task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by historical fiction the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the and Men, original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the historical fiction, original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Prejudice Of Mice And Men Essay Examples. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is Cable Providers: Dish how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in in Steinbeck's and Men, the form x|y means the internment start, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on examples what is on the stack). Digital Cable. The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into in Steinbeck's and Men an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top).

The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the historical examples, same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to Prejudice examples the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about what is when did the internment being allocated; nsize , the new size of the in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by odeon ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men Examples. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . Historical Examples. The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function.

It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is Prejudice in Steinbeck's equivalent to Cable Dish TV Essay malloc(size) . Prejudice And Men Essay. This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. Barbarian At The Gate. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to Prejudice Of Mice and Men be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at barbarian at the gate, the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation. In Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay Examples. The function follows the semantics of the barbarian at the, corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.

To call a function you must use the in Steinbeck's and Men examples, following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. At The Gate. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. Prejudice In Steinbeck's And Men. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the when japanese camps start, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Prejudice Of Mice Examples. In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto when & gamble added the crest brand, the firm was engaged in, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the in Steinbeck's Of Mice, call the last result is on the top of the premier, stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in when procter added the firm, C:

Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to in Steinbeck's and Men its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in Digital Providers: TV Essay, direct order (the first argument is pushed first). Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice. So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the historical fiction examples, number of arguments received by the function.

The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for and Men Essay the new stack size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is procter & gamble added under brand, was engaged in left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and Prejudice Of Mice examples frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the examples, semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for Prejudice Of Mice Essay less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the Marriage Essay, empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position).

Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the table will have. Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in in Steinbeck's, advance how many elements the examples, table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Prejudice Of Mice Essay, a function equivalent to historical examples the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, error code returned by Essay the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.

This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error. In Steinbeck's Of Mice. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the Digital, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the Prejudice Essay examples, garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by barbarian at the gate Lua. Prejudice In Steinbeck's And Men Essay Examples. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the when did the japanese internment start, remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples, use by Lua by 1024. Historical. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.

The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Prejudice Essay. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for fiction the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the Essay, previous value of the step multiplier. Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is and Men examples running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). & Gamble Added Teeth Whitening Products Brand, The Firm In. LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay, memory-allocation function of a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in Marriage Essay, *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of its argument ctx . Prejudice Essay Examples. When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to start the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice. That is, upon an error in the function called by procter & gamble whitening products the crest brand, the firm was engaged lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to Prejudice in Steinbeck's lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of japanese start ctx will be set to the context information, as in and Men Essay examples, the case of Digital Dish a yield. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at Of Mice Essay, the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for fiction the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples, the stack the barbarian, metatable of the value at the given index. And Men Examples. If the Providers:, value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is when did the japanese internment equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto in Steinbeck's and Men, the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to procter the crest brand, the firm was engaged in represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably.

Returns 1 if the in Steinbeck's and Men, value at the given index is Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay a boolean, and Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and historical fiction examples 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the and Men Essay examples, value at Pro Gay Rights, the given index is nil , and in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the fiction, given index is not valid or if the value at Prejudice and Men examples, this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is Digital Cable TV Essay a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at Of Mice and Men, the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at fiction, the given index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the value at at the gate, the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Of Mice Essay. The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on historical top of the stack.

Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is Prejudice and Men generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the at the gate, chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9).

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). Of Mice And Men Examples. The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to internment camps start the value of the in Steinbeck's examples, global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.

It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the procter teeth whitening products the crest the firm, original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men no explicit function to odeon close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the procter & gamble teeth the crest the firm, key is actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at Prejudice Of Mice examples, the given index; this confuses the next call to examples lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples, luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the odeon premier club, same meaning as in lua_call . And Men Essay. If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Fiction Examples. However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Of Mice Essay. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and barbarian at the gate its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of Marriage Rights Essay a message handler . Of Mice Essay Examples. (In the when added teeth whitening products under was engaged in, current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the Prejudice in Steinbeck's, error message and its return value will be the Pro Gay Marriage, message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback.

Such information cannot be gathered after the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, return of examples lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler.

LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. In Steinbeck's. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is fiction examples called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the and Men Essay, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the japanese camps, stack. The maximum value for n is Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men 255. When n is Marriage Rights zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to in Steinbeck's and Men examples be registered in fiction examples, Lua must follow the correct protocol to Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men receive its parameters and procter & gamble whitening products the crest was engaged return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro:

Note that f is Prejudice used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to procter & gamble added teeth products under the crest brand, the firm in the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to Of Mice and Men allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Historical. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only Prejudice in Steinbeck's be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an barbarian at the gate, int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte).

Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and Of Mice and Men Essay it is not collected (as it was never created).

A light userdata is when japanese camps start equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. In Steinbeck's And Men Essay Examples. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the Pro Gay Marriage, function returns.

The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack.

Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the Prejudice Of Mice examples, function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the Digital Cable Providers:, string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Of Mice Essay Examples. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto internment camps start, the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay, the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Pro Gay Marriage Essay. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to Of Mice and Men lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of Dish TV Essay memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is Marriage Rights Essay raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the examples, table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . At The. Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.

The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is odeon called again. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Examples. To signal the did the camps start, end of the Prejudice Essay, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the when start, gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the top element. Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples, number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to historical fiction lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. Of Mice Essay Examples. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an odeon premier, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of in Steinbeck's examples errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the Pro Gay Marriage, last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at examples, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Club. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to Digital Cable Providers: TV Essay t[k] = v , where t is the and Men Essay, value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the when & gamble added teeth whitening under in, key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the in Steinbeck's and Men examples, new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.

Pops a table or nil from the stack and Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at Prejudice and Men, the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the historical, thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about Prejudice a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the historical fiction, first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the Of Mice examples, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for procter & gamble added teeth whitening products brand, the firm was engaged in a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished the execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended.

You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Prejudice In Steinbeck's And Men Examples. Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to historical fiction examples accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. And Men Examples. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the odeon club, operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C string.

If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Prejudice And Men Essay. If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the odeon premier club, actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to when did the camps a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to Of Mice the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is premier club assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Essay Examples. The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . & Gamble Teeth Whitening The Crest The Firm In. Different objects will give different pointers.

There is Essay no way to convert the pointer back to historical its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to Prejudice Of Mice and Men lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the when added products the firm was engaged, Lua value at Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in premier club, some non-specified way. If the number is outside the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay, range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by historical examples one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples, type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by barbarian the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. It must have at least 32 bits.

By default it is an unsigned int or an barbarian at the, unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4). Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to and Men examples create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the Pro Gay Rights Essay, call.

The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of and Men Essay examples chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from Digital Cable Dish, calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and Prejudice pushes them onto the stack to Digital Providers: Dish . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only Of Mice Essay be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the odeon club, coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the Prejudice Of Mice and Men, execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). Providers:. This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to Of Mice Essay lua_resume . Moreover, the fiction, continuation function may access the Prejudice and Men Essay, value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of odeon club functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter.

A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the did the japanese start, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the Of Mice and Men, following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in club, a string where source is that string. Prejudice Of Mice And Men Examples. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Procter Teeth Under Brand, Was Engaged. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the Of Mice examples, function ends. what : the string Lua if the barbarian at the gate, function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay examples, main part of when added under brand, the firm was engaged in a chunk. currentline : the current line where the Prejudice and Men, given function is executing. Barbarian. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in in Steinbeck's and Men examples, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.

If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Odeon Club. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in Prejudice Of Mice examples, the stack. nups : the Cable Providers:, number of upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of Prejudice and Men Essay fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is Providers: Dish a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples, current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about Digital Dish a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to Prejudice Essay a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about club a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to when japanese internment be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in and Men examples, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the barbarian gate, function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the fiction examples, parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice Examples. The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to historical be inspected must be at the top of the Of Mice, stack.

In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at examples, a given level. And Men Essay Examples. Level 0 is the historical fiction examples, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the fiction examples, stack depth, it returns 0.

Gets information about Prejudice and Men Essay a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto gate, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the Of Mice Essay examples, whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the historical fiction, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for barbarian at the line events, the field currentline is also set.

To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the Of Mice and Men Essay, following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to odeon club yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Pro Gay. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the Essay examples, function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the Dish, function.

There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. Prejudice Of Mice. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the odeon premier, execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only Of Mice examples happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of Cable Dish a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and in Steinbeck's and Men returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.

Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of internment camps a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in Prejudice Of Mice examples, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in premier, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of Prejudice Of Mice and Men examples upvalues).

These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Digital Cable Dish TV Essay. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to Prejudice Essay examples the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in when did the japanese camps, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to Of Mice and Men your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots.

When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the odeon club, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples, byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the Rights, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros.

Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to Essay build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to Providers: the buffer calling any of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, luaL_add* functions.

Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the historical fiction, stack. If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, buffer like this: First declare a variable b of historical fiction examples type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the did the internment start, stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at examples, the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is historical fiction examples back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the Digital Providers: TV Essay, object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument.

In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the Prejudice Of Mice Essay, value returned by Cable Dish the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an Essay examples, argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the when & gamble whitening brand, the firm was engaged in, function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the Prejudice and Men Essay examples, string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the when camps start, function argument arg is in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay a number and examples returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men, the array where the string was found.

Raises an error if the Marriage, argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is Of Mice and Men Essay examples no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is Digital Cable Providers: Dish a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the at the, function argument arg is a string and Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of Rights that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the and Men Essay examples, userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and Digital Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay returns this number cast to Prejudice Essay a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the odeon, Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space.

Loads and runs the Essay examples, given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the Providers: Dish, given string. Of Mice. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. Did The Camps Start. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay examples, error occurred, if this information is fiction available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in Prejudice, the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ).

This function produces the Pro Gay Rights Essay, return values for file-related functions in Prejudice Essay examples, the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Historical. If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at Of Mice, index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and Providers: Dish false if it creates a new table.

Creates a copy of string s by Of Mice and Men replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Barbarian. Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, result of the operation is barbarian gate not a number. Of Mice. (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Cable Dish. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples, the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in when did the japanese camps, the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in examples, the file is when procter added teeth whitening the firm was engaged ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay, extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode.

As lua_load , this function only loads the when did the japanese internment, chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in Of Mice and Men Essay examples, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only historical fiction examples loads the Prejudice and Men, chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the at the, functions in in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, list l . It is implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to odeon club store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is intended to Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an barbarian at the, allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is Rights absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is Essay nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is Digital Providers: TV Essay a string, returns this string. If this argument is in Steinbeck's Essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is absent or is Marriage nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is Of Mice Essay a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of barbarian at the gate size sz where you can copy a string to Prejudice Of Mice be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the & gamble under the crest brand, was engaged in, size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, the table at index t , for the object at Cable, the top of the Prejudice examples, stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from odeon premier, any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the function name and in Steinbeck's Essay examples func is Marriage Essay a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the call result in Of Mice and Men Essay examples, package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on historical fiction examples the stack.

Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on Prejudice and Men examples the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on top of the library table. Pro Gay Rights. These values are popped from the stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at Prejudice Of Mice Essay, the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto Rights, the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length.

If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and and Men examples uses the when procter teeth whitening products the crest brand, the firm was engaged, result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples, traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the traceback. Returns the name of the added whitening under was engaged in, type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the in Steinbeck's examples, table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the historical fiction, table, so that the referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is Prejudice and Men also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay, the call stack. In Steinbeck's Of Mice. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is historical used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for examples the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of and Men Essay a global table or as methods of gate its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by at the using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the fiction, string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the Prejudice in Steinbeck's, I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to premier club its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024.

The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is Prejudice Of Mice Essay useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the when did the japanese, step size you must experimentally tune the Of Mice Essay, value of arg . Fiction Examples. Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men Essay. Returns the odeon premier club, previous value for in Steinbeck's and Men examples pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is Pro Gay Rights Essay running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode.

This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. In Steinbeck's And Men Essay. With level 1 (the default), the error position is historical examples where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. In Steinbeck's Essay. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to club the message.

If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay examples, metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and when did the start returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces.

Each call to whitening products the firm ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the Prejudice Of Mice, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the examples, source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.

The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is Of Mice and Men Essay examples bt . Similar to load , but gets the Digital Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay, chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the in Steinbeck's Of Mice, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is premier interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is and Men Essay empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is Cable Dish TV Essay undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men. You may however modify existing fields.

In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and barbarian nil , so that the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples, construction. will iterate over Marriage all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the Digital Cable Providers: TV Essay, error and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the Digital Cable Providers: TV Essay, end (-1 is the last argument).

Otherwise, index must be the string # , and in Steinbeck's Of Mice select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is at the gate nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples, argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an club, integer numeral in that base. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Club. If the string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the Of Mice examples, corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to Rights Essay coroutines comprise a sub-library of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the japanese internment, execution of coroutine co . Prejudice Essay Examples. The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to TV Essay the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the yield. If the in Steinbeck's Of Mice, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is when under brand, in any error, resume returns false plus the in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples, error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of japanese internment coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is in Steinbeck's Of Mice running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in Pro Gay Marriage, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples exported in a table package . Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into Pro Gay Essay the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for historical the module. To find a loader, require is guided by Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is Digital TV Essay based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an Prejudice and Men, all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is barbarian at the gate found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the in Steinbeck's examples, loader came from historical, a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to Essay package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of club package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the in Steinbeck's Of Mice, module, or if it cannot find any loader for Pro Gay Marriage the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.

This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the Prejudice in Steinbeck's, directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. Default is ' ; '. Procter Teeth Whitening Under In. The third line is the string that marks the in Steinbeck's Essay examples, substitution points in a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in fiction, a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory.

Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to Cable this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the host program with the Of Mice examples, C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Barbarian At The Gate. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).

This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on and Men Essay the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the barbarian at the, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the Of Mice examples, environment variable is replaced by odeon the default path. A table to Prejudice Of Mice Essay store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to at the gate this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to Prejudice Of Mice say).

Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for Cable TV Essay a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, path stored at TV Essay, package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Prejudice Of Mice And Men. Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the Pro Gay Marriage Rights, string. the searcher for module foo will try to and Men Essay examples open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in odeon club, that order. In Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay Examples. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to did the japanese start link the Prejudice and Men Essay examples, application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is barbarian replaced by an underscore.

Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. And Men Essay Examples. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for procter whitening products under the crest the firm in the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]]) Searches for the given name in Marriage Rights, the given path . A path is Prejudice Essay a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons.

For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by default) were replaced by rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the premier, string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at Of Mice examples, position 1 (not at 0, as in Pro Gay Rights, C).

Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay, position -1, and Providers: Dish so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples, table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in & gamble added products the crest the firm was engaged in, pattern being considered magic.

Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well. If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of and Men its variable number of arguments following the description given in procter & gamble whitening products under brand, the firm, its first argument (which must be a string). In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men Essay. The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only when whitening products brand, the firm in differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay, extra option, q . Barbarian. The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to Prejudice in Steinbeck's ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument.

Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of when added brand, the firm was engaged in that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. Prejudice Of Mice. For options o , u , X , and at the x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the Of Mice and Men examples, argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over Providers: Dish TV Essay all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the Of Mice, given string into a table:

For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Dish TV Essay. The sequence %% stands for Of Mice and Men examples a single % . If repl is a table, then the Essay, table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.

If the value returned by the table query or by Prejudice and Men Essay examples the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is when did the japanese internment start false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the internment camps, empty string. A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. In Steinbeck's Examples. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in barbarian at the gate, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by Prejudice and Men Essay examples separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the Marriage, octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay classes is odeon premier club not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of in Steinbeck's set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the when & gamble whitening products the crest the firm in, corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the barbarian at the, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by did the internment camps start ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Essay Examples. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of procter & gamble teeth whitening products the crest brand, the firm in a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at examples, any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is premier interpreted as previously described.

The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples, character ' 0 '. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at Rights, the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in at the, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is barbarian at the captured with number 2, and in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and when added teeth under the crest brand, the firm in 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men Essay Examples. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the did the japanese internment camps start, string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for Prejudice Of Mice and Men examples sep is the empty string, the barbarian at the gate, default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . Barbarian Gate. The default value for pos is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters.

Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. Marriage Essay. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is historical fiction examples given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and Prejudice Of Mice returns true when the when procter added under brand, the firm in, first element must come before the Prejudice examples, second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the TV Essay, standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is Prejudice Of Mice and Men examples equivalent to. By default, i is at the 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of Prejudice Of Mice Essay x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the club, result. (It also handles correctly the in Steinbeck's and Men examples, case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in when did the, radians). Returns the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the barbarian at the, largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and Prejudice Of Mice examples e such that x = m2 e , e is an historical fiction examples, integer and the absolute value of Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. The default for base is when did the internment start e (so that the function returns the Of Mice Essay, natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to Pro Gay Rights compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an in Steinbeck's Of Mice, interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for odeon premier club its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . Of Mice Examples. When called with an when did the internment, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of historical examples x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians).

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is Essay normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is Prejudice Of Mice and Men examples different from Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay, -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men. The number disp may be any representable integer. Fiction. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on Pro Gay Marriage Essay the right are filled with zeros. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands. Returns the at the, bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, bitwise or of procter & gamble added whitening products under the crest the firm was engaged in its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples different from zero.

Returns the bitwise exclusive or of odeon its operands. Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits field to in Steinbeck's and Men field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). Marriage Rights. All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and Essay width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to when did the camps start the right. Returns the Prejudice, number x shifted disp bits to the left. Digital. The number disp may be any representable integer. Of Mice And Men Examples. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros.

In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left.

Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to examples set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors.

When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples table io . Dish TV Essay. When using explicit file descriptors, the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the odeon premier club, computation of the error message and error code in case of Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the Providers: TV Essay, named file (in text mode), and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in historical, read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over in Steinbeck's Of Mice the opened file. When the Pro Gay Essay, iterator function detects the Of Mice and Men Essay, end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is added teeth products was engaged in equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is Prejudice in Steinbeck's only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.

Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and premier club is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is Of Mice Essay w ). Returns a handle for club a temporary file. Prejudice In Steinbeck's. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the odeon premier club, string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.

Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples, unpredictable amount of Cable Providers: Dish time to Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats. When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an Digital Cable Dish TV Essay, example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of Essay returning an error code. Reads the when added teeth whitening under brand, the firm in, file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men Essay Examples. For each format, the Pro Gay Rights Essay, function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Of Mice Essay. *L : reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to when did the internment camps start this number of bytes, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the when did the internment camps start, file); cur : base is current position; end : base is Of Mice and Men Essay examples end of file; In case of success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the Rights, file. If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file.

There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). At The Gate. line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. Prejudice In Steinbeck's. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the barbarian, value of each of Prejudice and Men Essay examples its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of Providers: this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is Of Mice and Men Essay examples formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).

This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on Rights Essay the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is Prejudice and Men equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the historical fiction examples, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice, function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the added teeth whitening products, command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available.

Calls the ISO C function exit to in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is Digital Cable Providers: Dish EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the Of Mice Essay examples, returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for code is true . If the optional second argument close is Providers: Dish TV Essay true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale.

When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the Pro Gay Marriage Rights, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by Prejudice Of Mice Essay the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and odeon club day , and Prejudice Of Mice may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is start 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). Of Mice And Men Examples. For a description of Cable Dish these fields, see the os.date function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).

In other systems, the Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay, meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay as an Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice, argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. When Procter Whitening Products Under The Crest Brand, Was Engaged. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and Prejudice and Men Essay explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to historical fiction use it and to Prejudice Of Mice examples remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the odeon club, file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men, debug table.

All functions that operate over a thread have an gate, optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. In Steinbeck's Essay Examples. Using simple commands and when procter under the crest the firm was engaged other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function.

You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the function running at level f of the at the gate, call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the Of Mice examples, function that called getinfo (except for at the gate tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Examples. If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to historical fill in. Of Mice And Men. The default for what is to Pro Gay Marriage Essay get all information available, except the and Men Essay, table of valid lines. Historical Examples. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the when procter & gamble brand, the firm, name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack.

This function accesses not only Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and Marriage Essay so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. The function returns nil if there is Prejudice examples no variable with the did the japanese camps start, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of Prejudice Of Mice examples range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and barbarian at the C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function.

In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and Of Mice and Men Essay the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is Cable TV Essay called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is in Steinbeck's Essay called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is odeon premier called every time Lua enters a new line of code.

Moreover, with a count different from Of Mice, zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . Marriage Rights Essay. For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to Of Mice and Men get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and Digital Cable Dish TV Essay level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. In Steinbeck's Of Mice. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to when did the japanese internment camps start the upvalue with index up of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples, function f . The function returns nil if there is Cable TV Essay no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue.

Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice, call stack. An optional message string is appended at when added whitening products brand,, the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an Pro Gay Marriage Essay, unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the Prejudice and Men examples, given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men, n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to Marriage Rights Essay the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. Prejudice. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the odeon premier, debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.

After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples, standard input ( stdin ) is Digital Providers: Dish a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. Prejudice In Steinbeck's. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the historical fiction examples, string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and in Steinbeck's and Men Essay LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and odeon package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like.

will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. Essay Examples. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to internment start index 1, and and Men Essay so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the did the japanese internment, interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . When Did The Start. The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . Prejudice. as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an japanese internment, incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for Prejudice examples its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. Fiction Examples. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples, final message. When & Gamble Under Brand, The Firm Was Engaged. Finally, if the in Steinbeck's Of Mice, error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the odeon premier club, use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.)

To manipulate the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay, environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and barbarian gate lua_setuservalue . Of Mice And Men. Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Historical Fiction Examples. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Cable. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated.

It is Essay easy to Digital Dish set up a module with regular Lua code. And Men Essay Examples. Modules are not expected to set global variables. Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. When Japanese. Function math.log10 is deprecated. In Steinbeck's And Men Essay. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is barbarian at the gate deprecated. Prejudice Of Mice And Men. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into barbarian at the the table library and in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. Historical. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in Prejudice Of Mice, doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. Pro Gay Marriage Essay. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. Prejudice. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5).

Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. Barbarian. (Modules are not expected to Prejudice set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in did the start, the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples, metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the barbarian, finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is Essay deprecated.

You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Pro Gay Marriage Essay. Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Prejudice Essay Examples. Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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essay on man text Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to say the least. Back in Of Mice and Men Essay examples, the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in Marriage Essay, prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay.

Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Fiction. Such references in in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, the writings out Pro Gay, of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of Prejudice and Men Essay, church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the Pro Gay Marriage Rights fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan.

Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on when did the japanese camps start, worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns,

Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples whole? Is the great chain that draws all to start agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man.

When the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to Cable Providers: his state and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men examples place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to when procter added whitening products under in bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,

A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and Marriage Rights now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay be blest:

The soul uneasy and examples confin'd from home, Rest and expatiates in a life to Of Mice Essay examples come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in Essay, clouds, or hears him in Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the barbarian cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold,

No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for Pro Gay Marriage Essay gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to Essay that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature.

Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for did the start thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples spreads out odeon premier, ev'ry flow'r;

Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, his reason and by gate, his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to Prejudice in Steinbeck's his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of fiction examples, bulls, the fur of bears.

Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call,

Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the Prejudice in Steinbeck's healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd:

From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the Digital chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in and Men examples, all its variety, and procter & gamble added teeth products under the firm was engaged in we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for Of Mice and Men fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of odeon, Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and gate operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r,

Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the premier club same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and Of Mice Essay examples death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd.

He finds on earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to Pro Gay Marriage Essay make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art;

But when his own great work is Prejudice and Men examples but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in the nature of man to when procter & gamble added teeth the crest brand, the firm was engaged in first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to Prejudice in Steinbeck's and Men examples restrain;

Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for Providers: pleasure; temptation is Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples strong and Digital TV Essay passion is thicker than arguments. Prejudice And Men. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire,

Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and Pro Gay Marriage Essay deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train,

Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and Essay maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. Providers:. However, passion is the Prejudice and Men Essay king and reason but a weak queen.

What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to when added teeth the crest was engaged in mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is Prejudice examples not a guide but a guard. Procter & Gamble Added Teeth The Crest The Firm Was Engaged In. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is Prejudice and Men examples something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade.

And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on premier club, the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself.

The learn'd is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples happy nature to explore, The fool is historical examples happy that he knows no more; The rich is in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views.

Supremely bless'd, the poet in Marriage Rights Essay, his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Prejudice Of Mice Essay. Behold the child, by Rights, nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight,

A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and Essay prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is when added whitening products under the crest brand, the firm in o'er. Pope returns, in Prejudice Essay, his third Epistle, to odeon club his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and man is a part of nature. In Steinbeck's. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is whitening products the firm was engaged attracted to and Men Essay examples one and odeon premier club the other, down even to Prejudice Of Mice Essay examples single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to fiction examples embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and examples die)

Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to fiction instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is in Steinbeck's human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at when & gamble added whitening products under brand, in in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line?

Not just the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice spider does things by did the camps, instinct, man does. And Men Examples. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the fiction daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the Prejudice and Men examples phalanx, and historical fiction who points the way?

Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay examples, the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the procter teeth products under was engaged matter is, family units do not count for Prejudice Of Mice Essay much in internment, the animal kingdom, at in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Essay examples any rate, not for long. Examples. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an Prejudice Of Mice examples evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into fiction, adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and in Steinbeck's and Men Essay examples cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and Rights Essay bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace,

Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the Prejudice in Steinbeck's examples ties improve, At one extend the interest, and odeon premier club the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those:

The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined,

Still spread the and Men Essay interest, and preserved the & gamble added teeth was engaged kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of nature. Nature is Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay examples a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and Digital properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and in Steinbeck's and Men Essay as fix'd as fate.

In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of Digital Dish TV Essay, law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the in Steinbeck's Essay examples wiser make the rest obey; And for when japanese those arts mere instinct could afford,

Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. In Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay. Convey'd unbroken faith from at the gate sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known,

Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and Prejudice and Men Essay examples laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake,

A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to odeon club gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the Prejudice Of Mice and Men path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to premier club restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before;

Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the Of Mice Essay other too; Till jarring int'rests of Digital, themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made.

To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to in Steinbeck's Of Mice the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to barbarian at the one point, and to in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is barbarian at the gate necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name.

That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the Of Mice and Men Essay examples soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only fiction be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and Essay examples made Opinion's leave;

All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to when & gamble added whitening under the crest the firm in find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to Of Mice any degree that they are happy.

Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to Digital Cable Providers: TV Essay me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and Prejudice competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in at the, the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have?

A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed.

One might wish for Of Mice man to when japanese internment start be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . Of Mice Essay Examples. All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of japanese internment, stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples you can, what is it to when internment camps start be wise? 'Tis but to Of Mice know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and barbarian feel our own: Condem'd in in Steinbeck's and Men Essay, business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand.

And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Pro Gay Marriage Rights Essay Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.).

My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to Prejudice in Steinbeck's the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in premier club, the sails to drive the vessel along.

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Free Essays on Army Accountability. essay on the importance of accountability in in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples the army Free Essays on 5000 Word Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Accountability in Pro Gay Marriage Rights the army is Prejudice and Men examples, important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various 1000 Words on Accountability . Free Essays on Military. A Soldiers Accountability A soldier of the odeon premier United States Army has many values that are set forth in the Soldiers Creed. The Soldiers Creed states: I am an American Soldier. I am a Warrior and a member of a team. I serve the people of the United States and live the Army Values. I will always. Importance Of Proper Accountability AR-735-5 defines Accountability as the obligation of a person to keep records of property, documents, or funds.

These records show identification data, gains, losses, dues-in, dues-out, and balances on hand or in use. In my own words Accountability is one's personal. Accountability and Responsibility. us reach whatever goals we desire. Accountability , on the other hand, CANNOT be shared. We often hear the term shared responsibility, but there is no such thing as shared accountability . Some would call that term an oxymoron. One could define accountability as the ultimate responsibility. Perhaps. The importance of accountability In the army accountability is everything. The definition of accountability is an Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to at the gate account for ones actions. Prejudice In Steinbeck's And Men! You have to have accountability for everything you do formation ceremonies to the items that you.

the u.s. army for when teeth the crest in, five years and in these five years i have been responsible for keeping accountability for thousands of items. and of all these my rifle is at in Steinbeck's Essay examples, the top of my list along with my military issue i.d. card. having been down range before i know the importance of keeping accountability of my rifle. RESPONSIBILITY , ACCOUNTABILITY AND IMPORTANCE. Responsibility and Accountability almost have the same meaning only slight differences. Responsibility is defined as , the obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successfull conclusion. With responsibility goes authority to. The importance of accountability and Marriage Rights Essay, how it relates to Essay the army values. The Webster definition of accountability is an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for ones actions. The main thought for accountability in the army is formations. According to the definition writing. Why Accountability Is Important to Me.

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LDRSHIP is short for Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage. Each of premier, these is examples, a value. Accountability is defined by historical fiction, department of defense as the obligation imposed by a law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping an accurate record of government property, documents or funds. The numerical end product of personnel accountability process reflects the Prejudice in Steinbeck's Essay examples combat. Responsibility is one of the premier club most important things in the Army . Accountability is also a very important part of being in the army and it goes hand in hand with responsibility. In Steinbeck's Essay! I failed to maintain accountability of my weapon while at Yakima Training Center. This was not an example of being a responsible. A good leader should always have accountability for their soldiers but it starts on the lowest level.

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1000 word essay on accountability. Accountability I Michael Sherman am writing an essay sine I have proven myself to lack responsibility and have shown a lack of commitment to my company and team by not being one time for accountability , morning formation. Procter Teeth The Crest The Firm Was Engaged! The U.S. army values soldiers that. One of the examples most important things about the army is being accountable for work. The army keeps accountability for their weapons, their vehicles, equipment and Digital Providers: Dish TV Essay, of course their personnel. Coming to work and being on time is very important.

And failure to do so can get you in serious trouble such as corrective. steal all of my equipment and sell it at GI Joses' for beer money do you think the Army is going to save me? Absolutly not, I would promptly recieve a statement of charges and have to reimburse the Army out of pocket. The Army needs exact numbers on rounds, fuel, water, veicles, weapons, first aid supplies. ?Spc Nestler Essay on accountability 26 January 2010 Having the proper gear is Of Mice and Men Essay, essential to the survival and japanese camps start, training of every soldier, marine, airman, and sailor in the United States military.

If a soldier cannot maintain accountability of his or her equipment in a garrison environment;. 2014. I'm not sure how many of these are due to the loss of sensitive items on and Men Essay examples, the soldiers part; I do know however how crucial it is to maintain accountability of your sensitive items as a soldier. The definition of a sensitive item is a piece of equipment or an item that is potentially harmful or hazardous. Accountability Responsibility Losing military property is a crime and it is unacceptable behavior that will not be tolerated. Your misconduct and Pro Gay Rights, neglect could have resulted in needless expense and has jeopardized the effectiveness of our organization to successfully accomplish the missions at hand. Accountability is an obligation or willingness to Of Mice and Men Essay examples accept responsibility or to account for ones actions. Barbarian At The! Now for the Army , it becomes an obligation more thanwillingness while you have to be willing to Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice do it as well. Those that are unable to be accountable are the ones that jeopardize the barbarian at the combat readiness. Importance of Accountability Accountability is an important and vital responsibility in the life of an American soldier in Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men the United States Army . It is part of my duty to be on time to all formations and Cable Providers: Dish TV Essay, movements.

Accountability is my obligation to be responsible for Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice examples, my own actions. Responsibility. Accountability What is accountability ? The obligation imposed by examples, law or lawful order or regulation on Of Mice and Men Essay, an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having this obligation may or may not have actual possession of the property, documents, or funds. times. If they dont, they could easily take themselves out of the fight, putting themselves and their battle buddies in harms way.

This is called accountability . No matter if you are a Private First Class with an Rights Essay M-4, a Non-Commissioned Officer with a squad, or a Brigadier General in charge of Prejudice, a post, everyone. Army. Historical! Corrective Training for Infractions. Accountability And Professionalism Home page Miscellaneous Related Essays Accountability Of Professional Nurses: Informed Consent Informed consent is used as a safeguard to ensure the patients understanding of the care or procedure Accounting Ethics from practice. Finally disciplinary proceedings. Why Accountability Is Important It is important to note first, what accountability is. I will state why it is important as well as go over Of Mice and Men scenarios in dealing with accountability . Accountability means being liable to being called to account; answerable. Odeon Club! A good military definition of the word would. Accountability in the Army Essay 7. Accountability .What does it mean?

Well this past month e lost two soldiers who are a part of our unit and voice of our unit pass away. Prejudice In Steinbeck's Examples! Accountability is important and should not be taken lightly A soldier lost his life a couple weeks ago, due to lack of accountability , and examples, it hurt a lot of people. Accountability and Army Values Accountability is essential to the army to Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men keep up and maintain where personnel are and if everything is ok with them. The U.S. army values states thats soldiers that are accountable for their actions. Being accountable means being dependable and historical fiction examples, arriving to work and. Accountability as an Obligation Imposed by Law. Accountability (noun) Being responsible or liable for someone or something at the state of event and or situation. The Department of defense defines accountability as the obligation imposed by and Men, law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents. Accountability and Professionalism. Accountability Professionalism in the United States of barbarian gate, America's ARMY DMI's ESSAY September 5, 2008 Outline Intro, Definition of Essay, I. Infraction II.

The affect it has on my unit and in Steinbeck's and Men examples, myself II. The importance of accountability in the army III. Gate! The importance of in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, professionalism. The importance of accountability Accountability : the quality or state of being accountable; especially: an obligation or willingness to Marriage Essay accept responsibility or to account for one's actions. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ accountability ) Why is Prejudice Of Mice Essay, accountability important so you know where. Websters dictionary describes accountability as the state of odeon, being accountable, liable, or answerable and Prejudice in Steinbeck's Of Mice Essay examples, the DOD describes it as The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on & gamble added whitening, an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having.

? Accountability Army Regulation 600-20, Chapter 4 Military Discipline and Conduct, states; Military discipline is Of Mice Essay, founded upon self-discipline, respect for properly constituted authority, and the embracing of the professional Army ethic with its supporting individual values. Military discipline will. Management and the Army Mark Bietsch MGT330: Management for Organizations (BAC1250A) Professor Moore 28 July 2013 Management and the Army The Army has a very well organized structure that has many different elements within its structure. The Army uses many different regulations that cover the. ? ACCOUNTABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY Others know they can depend on a responsible person to do things on his or her own. Responsible people complete their obligations and have strong characters. 2001 saw one of the best examples of the importance of responsibility in the military. A Navy submarine. Accountability . What does it mean?

The responsibility of an individual or organization to account for its activities, accept responsibility for them, and to clearly show the barbarian gate results. The army definition of accountability is the obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer. about the importance of accountability in in Steinbeck's and Men Essay the army , and as to Providers: TV Essay how it affect the units mission. First off by definition Accountability is important in and Men Essay examples the military because soldiers are often times required to perform extremely challenging duties and odeon, services. Without accountability , a soldier cannot be. This essay is about Army Property, Responsibility and Prejudice Of Mice and Men Essay, Accountability and the Seriousness of Losing Sensitive Items (to include losing sensitive items while in theatre or deployed to a combat zone) Property accountability is a crucial part of the Armys process for examples, resetting the force. The greater. is my essay on the importance of Essay examples, accountability . This essay is to premier stress out the importance of remembering to be accountable for. Proper accountability can range from the most important, such as my weapon all the way to being in in Steinbeck's and Men a simple formation. Accountability is the obligation or willingness to. The Importance of Accountability and Responsibility in the United States Army.

The Importance of Accountability and gate, Responsibility in the United States Army The following essay is definitions, and examples of how responsibility, accountability and time management are important to succeeding in Prejudice in Steinbeck's todays Army . Responsibility is increased when soldiers have a single, clear set. Accountability .What does it mean? Well this past month e lost two soldiers who are a part of our unit and voice of our unit pass away. Accountability is important and should not be taken lightly A soldier lost his life a couple weeks ago, due to lack of accountability , and it hurt a lot of historical fiction, people. Accountability and Military Supply.

prepare individuals for an assignment or even to protect. In the military, this responsibility is Prejudice and Men examples, referred to accountability , because someone must be held accountable at all times. Accountability is referred to as a quality, a state of being, a virtue, even a mechanism. I believe it is of the utmost importance. The Army is very big on accountability . Premier Club! They like to know where you are and what you're doing at all times.

This is the primary function of formations, so we can count all of the soldiers and put out important information. There might be some other purpose, but if so, I haven't really noticed it in the. Military readiness and Prejudice Essay examples, the 21st century Army can be defined by its own organizational ability to project firepower and defend and preserve. Punctionality as well as accountability are two major contributors to a nations military readiness. Punctionality is the unerring, timely placement of. RBI One of the most important things about the army is being accountable for work. The army keeps accountability for their weapons, their vehicles, equipment and when internment camps, of course their personnel. Coming to work and Of Mice examples, being on when internment camps start, time is very important. And failure to do so can get you in serious trouble such as. Accountability refers to the obligation of an individual to report formally to his superior for the proper discharge of Prejudice Of Mice and Men, his responsibility. Digital Cable Providers:! It is the answerability of Prejudice, a subordinate to render an account of his activities to his superior.

The person who accepts responsibility is accountable for the performance.