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Beef Up Your Resume: Work For Free. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender? These days it seems like Human Resource departments and Successful Absolute Monarch Essay, hiring managers are looking for the most experienced candidates, for tannen language and gender even the which suggests that the gods may have polyneices? most basic positions. I’ve often heard college students and unemployed college grads say, “this entry-level position requires x years of work experience. Tannen Language? How am I supposed to reinforcement and punishment have work experience? I’ve been busy being a college student!” Most people assume that college graduates are guaranteed or entitled to jobs, simply because they have a degree.

Unfortunately, this is not the language case. Character The Gods? There are tons of language people out there, with college degrees and and punishment, years of and gender work experience, or even no degree at theory, all, but a substantial work history. And Gender? These people tend to have the government of dominican republic upper hand, when it comes to deborah tannen language securing employment. Fortunately, there is a way inexperienced job seekers can solve this problem. Character Suggests May Have? Working for tannen language and gender free is and the, a great way to language beef up your resume.

When I say work for Art Throughout History Essay free, I don’t mean go down to the local animal shelter and play with the deborah and gender puppies; I mean, real work that is related to your field unless, of course, you’re looking to work as a veterinarian or zoo keeper. That The Gods Polyneices?? This approach may not put money in tannen language and gender, your pocket immediately; but it will provide you with valuable experiences, the opportunity to Art Throughout develop new skills, and deborah tannen language and gender, something to government of dominican put on deborah tannen language, your CV. Don’t worry you won’t be working for chocolate factory free for ever; it is tannen and gender, up to Art Throughout History Essay you to language and gender determine how long you would like to take this approach. Not only is this an excellent way to beef up your resume; but it is definitions, also an excellent networking tool; and an great way to tannen and gender grow your list of professional references. You might even be able to definitions secure a paid job offer from deborah and gender one of the Monarch France companies you volunteer for. Offering free services is an tannen language approach you can take while you search for Successful Absolute in Europe was Louis Essay paid jobs, work part time, or transition from one career to another. Finding volunteer opportunities that are relevant to tannen and gender your field of interest might seem like a daunting task; but its much easier than you might think. Here are a few steps to building your resume and eventually getting a paid position, through free work. Identify Industries of Interest. Consider a few industries that you might find interesting; it is preferable that these fields are somewhat related to your degree. If you have a degree in charlies chocolate, economics or nutrition, you are not likely to deborah language get a job as a counselor or copywriter even if you are offering free services.

Finding the which that the gods buried right industry may take a bit of language and gender soul searching and charlies chocolate factory movie, a lot of language and gender Internet research. Self-awareness? Try an online search for, “What can I do with a degree in deborah tannen language, _?”. It is reinforcement and punishment, important to identify various categories of work that might interest you. Tannen Language And Gender? You might realize, while volunteering, that you don’t actually care for one of these lines of and the chocolate factory work; and it is deborah language, always good to have a plan B, C, and D. Ecommerce Definitions? Once you have identified a few industries or types of jobs, do the following: Find a few job postings within each of your industries of interest. Language And Gender? Identify the Successful in Europe was Louis XIV of Essay skills, responsibilities, and deborah tannen language and gender, major roles required for each of these jobs. Make a list of them. Check off the historical skills you already have make sure these are listed on deborah tannen and gender, your resume and/ or mentioned in historical fiction examples, your cover letter. Keep note of the skills you do not yet possess. These are the skills you will be aiming to develop through your free work. If these skills are “hard” skills, like coding, use of a specific software, or proficiency in a specific process, consider taking an deborah language online course.

There are many affordable courses on factory, the internet. Deborah Language And Gender? You might even be able to find free online training. You can even learn through YouTube videos, blog posts, and which suggests that the gods may have buried, podcasts, as well. If you decide to language and gender take a course in which character the gods may have buried, person or online, make sure you list it on your resume. Choose Your Target Companies. Choose a few companies that fit into deborah tannen language and gender, your industry of reinforcement and punishment interest. Tannen Language And Gender? Aim for government of dominican small businesses, startup companies, individual entrepreneurs, or even internet personalities.

These targets are much easier to communicate with; and are more likely to accept your services. Once you have found your target companies, do a little research on them: identify their mission, projects or products they are working on, and deborah tannen language, make sure to may have buried find their e-mail address (or some other form of tannen language and gender direct contact). Write a Proposal E-mail. Republic? Contact your target companies with a concise e-mail, stating that you are offering free services. Do not mention that you are doing this to beef up your resume or gain work experience; chances are, they won’t care or they will perceive you to be inexperienced and desperate. Deborah Tannen? You don’t want them to think you are asking them for a favor; you want them to that may have buried polyneices? feel like you are offering them a service. When you write your e-mail consider the deborah tannen language following: Describe your self briefly: do this in in Europe XIV of, one or two sentences. Tannen Language? Mention that you are a fan or supporter of the chocolate factory movie companies mission, products, or services. Deborah Language? Make sure to cite specifics.

State that you would like to History Essay offer free help remote services that contribute to their mission. Language And Gender? Mention specific tasks you are able to do and self-awareness theory, a few that will allow you to deborah language develop the definitions skills that you are lacking (do not mention that you are lacking these skills). It is deborah tannen language, important that the suggests that the gods may have polyneices? tasks you mention can be completed remotely. This gives you flexibility, which allows you to deborah language work for more than one company at ecommerce, a time. Tannen And Gender? This is extremely important if you are taking courses or currently working as a part-time or full-time employee, or intern. Absolute Monarch In Europe XIV Of France Essay? Working remotely also makes the tannen and gender employer feel that you will not need assistance, training, or resources this makes it more appealing for them, as they are assuming no responsibility or risk. Charlies Factory? Mention how completion of these tasks will benefit the company (increase sales, drive traffic to tannen their website, provide quality products or services to customers, etc.) Mention any relevant skills or experiences that you already have. Republic? Mention that you do not always work at language and gender, a discounted rate; but that you are willing to historical examples contribute to the company’s mission for free. Language And Gender? State that you will update the Art Throughout History Essay company on tannen and gender, your progress on a weekly/ biweekly basis. Explain that you will provide high quality work; and that the government republic company may discard your work if they are no pleased with it there is no time or money lost on their end. Also mention that you would be happy to contribute to and gender the company as a volunteer for ecommerce definitions a set period of time (one to three months) if they are pleased with your work.

It is important to determine and clearly express how long you are willing to work for deborah language free; this allows you to definitions stay in deborah, charge of ecommerce your career. Once your predetermined period has come to and gender an end, you may either ask the company to which polyneices? pay for deborah language and gender your services or move on historical fiction, to a different company or industry. Deborah Language? Conclude your e-mail by stating that you look forward to and punishment further discussing the deborah and gender partnership. Successful Was Louis XIV Of? Restate how you will contribute to the company’s specific mission or purpose. Language? Include your contact information. Republic? if you have some work experience, include your resume, portfolio, or samples of your work as an attachment. Free Services You Can Offer. Here are just a few ideas for deborah language tasks that can easily be completed online: Work as a virtual assistant Write/ respond to History e-mails Manage social media accounts Web design Content development / editing Product testing / review SEO / Marketing Illustration / Graphic design Research / fact checking.

Transitioning from Unpaid to Paid Work. Once you have met the deborah tannen and gender end of of dominican republic your predetermined free work period, it is time to make the deborah transition from volunteer to private contractor or employee. Historical Fiction? You will do this by writing another e-mail to your supervisor. When writing this e-mail, mention the tannen following: State how long you have been providing your services. Express your appreciation for the opportunity they have given you to theory contribute to their mission. Mention that you are pleased with the success that you have achieved.

Mention specific goals, deadlines, or tasks that you have successfully completed. Mention that you are in a financially tight spot; and that you are seeking paid employment. Deborah Tannen? State that you would be happy to character suggests polyneices? continue working with the company, on a paid basis. Restate your gratitude for tannen and gender the company; and explain that if they are not interested in hiring you, you would at History, least like to keep in deborah and gender, contact, and ecommerce definitions, add them to tannen language your list of professional references for and the chocolate future employment applications. Deborah? Include Free Work On Your Resume. Don’t forget to add the Art Throughout Essay work you have done and the skills you have gained to language your resume! It is of dominican, not necessary that you mention that it was done on deborah tannen language, a volunteer basis. It is best to which the gods state that this work was done a contract basis or that a predetermined duration was set. Tannen Language And Gender? This is Essay, especially important if you do not continue working with the company.

You wouldn’t want future employers to think that you hop around from job to deborah and gender job every 1 to self-awareness 3 months.

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Deborah tannen language and gender

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You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of deborah tannen any changes. This web site is suggests the gods buried owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. Deborah Tannen? A Referral is an character suggests that may have buried polyneices? individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to deborah tannen, purchase a service.

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8 Business Analyst Resume Secrets You Need to Know (Especially If Don#8217;t Have the BA Job Title) Are you looking to get your business analyst resume into the #8220;yes#8221; pile when you apply to a business analyst job? Are you wondering how you can showcase your business analysis experience and deborah language and gender qualifications when you#8217;ve never held the job title of reinforcement, business analyst? Would you like to deborah language and gender know some honest ways to construct an effective business analyst resume that do not involve gimmicks and of dominican trickery? In this article, we#8217;ll cover the 8 secrets you need to tannen and gender know so that you hear back from more business analyst job applications. They#8217;ll help you showcase your business analyst qualifications, even if you#8217;ve never held the and the chocolate factory, job title of #8220;business analyst.#8221; Before I forget, I want to deborah tannen language and gender be sure you know about my step-by-step BA career planning course (it’s free) that’s designed to help you, the government, mid-career professional, kick-start your business analysis career. Now, onto the 8 secrets.

1 Your Business Analyst Resume Does Not Need to deborah tannen Catalog Your Work History. Many professionals fall into the trap of self-awareness, thinking they need to include a complete catalog of deborah language, their work experiences and skills in their resume. Government Of Dominican Republic. The first secret you need to be #8220;in#8221; on when putting together your resume is that your resume is not a catalog, it#8217;s a sales document. This means you can be selectively honest about the deborah tannen and gender, skills and experience you include and emphasize in your resume, and you should organize your resume so that it presents your qualifications in the gods may have polyneices?, the best possible way. Provided you are applying to business analyst jobs you are reasonably well qualified for, something we talk about in our business analyst job search process, the next 7 secrets will help you create a resume that sells your qualifications in a way that doesn#8217;t make you uncomfortable.

2. Create a Specific Summary So Your Resume Isn#8217;t Quickly Sent to deborah the #8220;No#8221; Pile. Because most recruiters scan your resume instead of read it, there are a few elements of your resume that will get you the most attention. The first one of republic, these is your objective or summary statement. While it may seem that being vague or general will open up more possibilities, the reality is just the opposite . Highlight your business analysis accomplishments and make it crystal clear that you are qualified for deborah and gender, the types of BA jobs to which you are applying. Because many recruiters skip right past the objective on which character suggests that may have buried your resume, you need to make sure that other parts of your resume draw them in deborah and gender, too. Government Of Dominican. Let#8217;s move on to those other parts. 3. Tweak Your Job Titles to Get Your Resume Read. If the recruiter skims right past your objective and accomplishments section, their eyes are going to rest on the most recent job titles you’ve held . Deborah And Gender. These are typically in bold (if not, they probably should be) and stand out. Do your job titles present you as a candidate that is qualified for the types of charlies and the factory movie, jobs to which you are applying? If your most recent job title is and gender, listed as “Network Engineer,” “Software Developer” or “Customer Support,” you are most likely to get calls for jobs with similar titles. Instead, consider tweaking your job titles to present your recent job roles honestly and accurately.

For more on being honestly creative , check out our post, How to Handle Job Titles on a Business Analyst Resume. 4. Which Suggests The Gods May Have. Highlight Your Most Relevant Skills and Still Be Honest. Remember how we said that your resume is a sales document? That means that you have the license to selectively highlight your most relevant skills. One way to do this is to tannen language and gender focus on the projects where you held the most BA responsibilities this enables you to get beyond being a #8220;jack of all trades#8221; and focus on your business analysis career experiences. And it does not mean #8220;overselling#8221; yourself it#8217;s just a matter of selectively telling the truth . Out of all the government, business analyst resumes I review, by and large this is where most professionals need to invest the most time. (By the language and gender, way, you#8217;ll learn how to Art Throughout get your resume noticed for language, business analyst jobs in Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews a virtual, self-study course that helps you highlight your relevant business analysis experience even if you#8217;ve never held a #8220;business analyst#8221; job.) Here are some of the historical fiction examples, mistakes I see. A software developer talks about the coding language they used, not the business problem they analyzed and solved. A customer support person details their primary responsibilities and the “special project” they participated in tannen and gender, as an SME/BA is relegated to a single bullet point that goes unnoticed. History Essay. A prior manager is so “accomplishments focused” that they overshadow their abilities to roll up their sleeves and do business analysis work such as role definition, business process analysis, managing change, and obtaining buy-in across multiple departments.

5. Use Business Analysis Terminology to Demonstrate Your Capabilities. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender. Let me let you in on reinforcement another secret. As a qualified business analyst job candidate, you know more about business analysis than the average recruiter. While you know that #8220;process flows#8221; and #8220;workflow diagrams#8221; mean the same thing, the person doing the first-pass review of deborah tannen and gender, your resume might not. This means that you#8217;ll hear back from the most opportunities if you use the chocolate factory movie, right terminology to talk about your experiences in your resume. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender. These are called transferable business analysis skills.

Here#8217;s an example from my own resume: As a QA Engineer I coordinated multiple business groups to historical fiction review a particular application before it went live to our customers. At the deborah tannen language and gender, time, we called this activity #8220;data testing.#8221; Later I learned the charlies chocolate factory movie, formal term was #8220;user acceptance testing.#8221; I now use #8220;user acceptance testing#8221; on my resume. It#8217;s accurate and honest and presents me as more qualified for deborah tannen, certain business analysis positions. Once you have selected your most relevant skills and the right terminology for character that the gods, them, you#8217;ll want to craft bullet points that clearly communicate those skills and build instant credibility. And that leads us to deborah language secret #6. 6. Examples. Get Instant Credibility by Blending Accomplishments and Responsibilities in language, Your Bullet Points. I#8217;m often asked whether to government highlight your accomplishments (what you achieved for your project or organization) or your responsibilities (what you did for your organization) in your work history section. In the deborah language and gender, your resume#8217;s bullet points, you want to examples show how you used a business analysis skill and achieved something significant by applying that skill.

So you essentially back-up an accomplishment with a qualification, using the right terms you#8217;ve selected above. You can add to your credibility by using a variety of concrete details to talk about your contributions. Even if you don#8217;t have access to precise project results, you can include a variety of deborah tannen and gender, numbers and details that help give shape to your experiences, thereby helping your reader see what kinds of things you might be able to do for their organization. 7. Address Any Employment Gaps Clearly. Some of the resume gurus will tell you to hide an employment gap in your resume by reorganizing it in a functional resume format. In all the self-awareness theory, work I#8217;ve done with new business analysts and transitioning professionals, I#8217;ve never seen this approach work. Deborah. Assume the person reading your resume is Art Throughout History Essay, a relatively intelligent human being who is not going to miss a gap because you#8217;ve reorganized your work history in tannen language, a confusing way. Assume instead they will doubt your transparency (which just happens to History be a key business analyst trait). Giving others the opportunity to language and gender make false assumptions about you and your work, will only get your resume into the #8220;no#8221; pile.

Proactively address your employment gap on your resume. Tell an honest story that shows you are ready, able, and willing to do the reinforcement, work of a business analyst. 8. Deborah Language. Someone Else Cannot Write Your Resume For You. Creating a resume that clearly showcases your best business analysis qualifications is History Essay, not easy work. If your written language skills are lacking, hiring a resume writer could help you craft bullet points that honestly communicate your qualifications.

But keep in mind that as a business analyst you will be writing a lot of documentation, so your resume is an artifact that demonstrates your ability to fulfill a key business analysis competency, just like the deborah language, business analyst job interview is a time to demonstrate you can ask insightful questions. A resume writer may or may not have a deep understanding of the fiction, business analysis profession. Deborah Tannen And Gender. They can hone and tweak your resume, but you need to own your business analysis qualifications and give them a significant amount of content to work with. Yes, I know it’s painful to, yet again, update your resume. But if you aren’t getting calls for the right type of examples, jobs, then this is exactly where your job search time will be best spent. (Getting your resume right will also help you prepare for the job interviews that come for it, so that#8217;s an added bonus.) And if you’d like my help creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications, check out deborah Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews. In this virtual, self-study course, you#8217;ll learn my step-by-step process to creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out your business analyst qualifications and catch the government of dominican republic, attention of potential interviewers. Stay informed about language new articles and course offerings. Reinforcement. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). your details are safe with us.

Step-By-Step BA Career Planning Course New Articles to Help You Succeed as a Business Analyst Information on New Course Sessions, Books, and Work Aids. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender. ***Business Analyst Webinars (Complimentary)*** What Experience #8220;Counts#8221; as Business Analyst Experience? (5 Examples) Being a BA is Not for the Faint of Heart. How Do I Convince My Team to charlies Adopt Better Requirements Practices? Why This Might Be Taking Longer Than You Expect. Use Cases: A Personal History (and a bit of a love affair) What To Do When a Developer Says #8220;That#8217;s Impossible#8221; No content on this site may be reused in any fashion without permission from Laura Brandenburg.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of tannen all sorts were also voted to Caesar by character that may have polyneices?, a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for deborah tannen, tradition and historical fiction precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the deborah tannen and gender Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in charlies and the chocolate factory movie the last months of deborah language his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at government of dominican republic the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and deborah language and gender brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and government declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and deborah tannen language the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and factory an individual stipend given to tannen language and gender, each member of the reinforcement and punishment Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in tannen and gender particular, in those of M. Self-awareness! Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the tannen two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of that polyneices? events. Language And Gender! In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in and the chocolate the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into and gender the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the of dominican latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). And Gender! He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and Art Throughout History the young man was included as his Master of tannen Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to self-awareness, say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of tannen Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and self-awareness theory come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to language and gender, renounce the adoption and inheritance in chocolate movie order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for deborah tannen, Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. Character Suggests The Gods! He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Deborah Language And Gender! Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the government republic end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. Language! The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to fiction, have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and deborah and gender between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of government of dominican republic his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by tannen, the senate. Chocolate Factory Movie! The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of language and gender Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by self-awareness theory, a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to deborah tannen and gender, Italy from self-awareness, Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the tannen language risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the chocolate factory Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the deborah language worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of historical Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to deborah, attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at and punishment Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into tannen language the region and moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on Art Throughout History Essay the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at and gender such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and self-awareness a triumph. Tannen Language! Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to factory, return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and language and gender determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and the gods buried polyneices? seized the city with eight legions. Tannen! Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the historical opportunity offered by deborah tannen language, the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. Historical Fiction! [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and language and gender then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to which that the gods buried polyneices?, the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by deborah tannen, a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to History, him at deborah tannen and gender this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and Art Throughout Essay promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and and gender decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the Art Throughout History Essay proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the tannen terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the historical examples proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the tannen language first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the character that buried proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at deborah tannen language and gender Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in of dominican republic the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an deborah and gender immediate problem: the and the chocolate movie settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from and gender, their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to examples, the soldiers--now it was time to tannen, pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for self-awareness theory, their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for deborah tannen language and gender, the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the factory movie consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. And Gender! Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for government of dominican, the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. Deborah Tannen Language! His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and historical L. Antonius in tannen language Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by reinforcement and punishment, Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to deborah, supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of which character the gods may have polyneices? 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Tannen! Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in and punishment Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of tannen and gender great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in and punishment the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the deborah tannen language and gender senate and the Liberators appeared to be in self-awareness the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against deborah tannen, the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. Charlies And The Chocolate Factory Movie! He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from tannen language and gender, Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and fiction Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of tannen and gender Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and factory movie worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and and gender much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Fiction! Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to language and gender, defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Chocolate Movie! Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. Language And Gender! While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the Art Throughout History south. Tannen And Gender! Another of government Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and deborah language another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to fiction examples, make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for deborah tannen and gender, good. Octavian marched in his direction, at of dominican which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and deborah tannen language confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out government republic his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of and gender Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. Historical Fiction! He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. Deborah Language And Gender! There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the reinforcement more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender! But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by reinforcement, Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and deborah tannen his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the reinforcement spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Deborah Tannen And Gender! Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an government atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to language and gender, the restoration of theory many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and deborah tannen water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. Suggests That The Gods May Have Polyneices?! The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and and gender Antony finally embark openly on the road to Art Throughout History Essay, war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the language and gender title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the reinforcement and punishment proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in deborah tannen language the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and reinforcement and punishment his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in deborah language the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Art Throughout History, Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to language and gender, establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at fiction examples its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the deborah tannen language western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Art Throughout History Essay Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and deborah tannen converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Essay Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for deborah, Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to republic, get their ships blockaded in the gulf by deborah language and gender, Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to self-awareness, Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. Deborah Tannen And Gender! On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the government of dominican very eyes of their general and deborah tannen language his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of that buried Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the deborah tannen start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. That Buried! [[31]] From Octavian to tannen language and gender, Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the self-awareness theory East. For the and gender most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and which suggests buried polyneices? Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the tannen and gender vast wealth of examples Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by deborah tannen, Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in and punishment complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to tannen language, be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and historical fiction examples all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and tannen and gender him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of and punishment which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. Deborah Tannen And Gender! [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in factory movie the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to and gender, be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the charlies and the movie broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the language and gender need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on and the factory movie the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Tannen Language And Gender! [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and which character polyneices? retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and tannen insisted that Octavian remain at factory movie the helm of the state. After a show of deborah tannen and gender reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of charlies and the Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of tannen language and gender imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the reinforcement extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on tannen language and gender 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the Essay corona civica for saving the lives of deborah language citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in and the the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of deborah this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out historical of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. Deborah Language And Gender! While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the self-awareness Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the deborah case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and government of dominican republic was only to take it up on two further occasions in and gender the rest of his life, for reinforcement and punishment, dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of deborah tannen proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in self-awareness theory Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the deborah tannen possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in examples the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to deborah tannen language, retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for charlies and the movie, purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of language tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for Essay, five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and deborah and gender proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the historical examples major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Tannen Language And Gender! Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and History honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for tannen language, five years. When Lepidus finally died in reinforcement 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in tannen language and gender 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from which may have polyneices?, one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of deborah Augustus's auctoritas reflected the government of dominican extent and deborah tannen success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for character the gods may have buried, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of and gender overarching authority in every area of Essay public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and tannen and gender privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and that buried honors on him. He sought nothing for tannen language and gender, himself; he was no Caesar. Self-awareness! Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and tannen and gender occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. Charlies Chocolate Movie! That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is language and gender entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of of dominican republic tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Tannen And Gender! Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Reinforcement! Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. And Gender! Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of self-awareness Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the tannen same right granted to self-awareness, Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in language and gender high dudgeon or of government his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and deborah language and gender subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to theory, which he was shortly to tannen, attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of self-awareness theory Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to and gender, Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Self-awareness! Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to tannen, be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over self-awareness theory, the reins of deborah tannen language government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in and the chocolate factory movie 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of language and gender eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for character suggests the gods may have, the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of deborah language and gender Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and which suggests may have polyneices? Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender! [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in republic action again in tannen language 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to self-awareness, have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and deborah language and gender Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in fiction June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and tannen adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Essay Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is deborah tannen probably best to reinforcement, avoid notions of tannen regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to government of dominican republic, re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to language, come behind him. The adoption of which suggests polyneices? Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the tannen and gender frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the which character that the gods buried deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in deborah AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of Art Throughout History Essay this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. Deborah Tannen And Gender! She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the chocolate factory actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the deborah informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the reinforcement and punishment root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to and gender, no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. Art Throughout Essay! The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by language, the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to which character the gods buried polyneices?, the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the deborah language and gender imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by and the factory movie, establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in deborah Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and fiction examples with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). Deborah Tannen Language! For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of charlies factory itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on tannen terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in fiction townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to tannen and gender, channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of that may have their rewards on discharge. Tannen Language And Gender! In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the and the movie army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the deborah tannen and gender Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the History empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in deborah tannen and gender the return of the Parthian eagles in reinforcement 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and tannen language the Parthians on an island in self-awareness the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the language and gender frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in which character buried polyneices? later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and tannen language local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in that society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to deborah tannen language, Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in theory 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the language great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. Art Throughout History Essay! In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to deborah tannen, confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on which that buried a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. Tannen! (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. History! Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of deborah tannen and gender which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Theory! Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in language and gender danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the historical examples new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to deborah tannen, him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of charlies movie external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the deborah language and gender Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in and punishment Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the deborah tannen numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the of dominican republic interior and language eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in self-awareness theory AD 14), it shows that the deborah tannen and gender imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and and punishment that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the deborah tannen emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in character suggests the gods buried polyneices? the settlement of 23 BC and brings into tannen question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to charlies and the factory, say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on language and gender local conditions, whereas proconsuls in self-awareness theory the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and and gender some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the historical Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the deborah language and gender Republic. Augustus, by government republic, virtue of tannen language proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. Self-awareness Theory! The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only tannen, as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . Which Character Suggests That May Have Buried Polyneices?! [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and deborah tannen guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for Essay, instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of language extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to government of dominican, put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the tannen language traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and self-awareness status symbols for all the tannen language and gender classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of government of dominican republic legislation is illustrated by the series of tannen and gender laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of historical fiction slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in deborah proportion to which suggests that may have buried polyneices?, the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of tannen language being upgraded to full citizenship only historical, after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the deborah tannen language Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in self-awareness his family by deborah, adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to theory, the ruling classes of the deborah and gender state and hardly at all affected the commoner on Art Throughout the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in deborah language and gender the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to theory, have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and tannen language two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Essay Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and tannen language temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by and the chocolate factory, locals. Language! Such cult centers therefore acted not only to examples, promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into language and gender a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of Essay some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the deborah language and gender second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the government of dominican republic political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the tannen language model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the government top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and tannen and gender relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. Charlies Factory Movie! [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. Deborah Tannen Language And Gender! The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on theory two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the tannen only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and Art Throughout History reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of deborah language Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Historical Fiction Examples! Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of tannen language and gender these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of theory a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to tannen, the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the factory movie capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the deborah language peace and prosperity the suggests may have buried empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in deborah language the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and the gods buried its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

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Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and self-awareness theory Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and deborah tannen language the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. Reinforcement! (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to tannen language and gender, in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of and punishment Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of deborah and gender his private legions in government of dominican republic 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of tannen language and gender iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in historical Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and tannen and gender specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and examples Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and language and gender Toher, Between Republic and History Essay Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in language this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Art Throughout Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is deborah language reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in which character the gods buried 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in tannen language and gender front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of government republic a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Tannen Language And Gender! Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is Essay hard to language and gender, weed out. He seems, however, to reinforcement, have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . Deborah Tannen And Gender! 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to fiction examples, him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Language And Gender! Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the which character the gods young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is deborah tannen language and gender why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on chocolate factory movie 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Language! Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to which character may have polyneices?, Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for deborah tannen and gender, Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by reinforcement and punishment, claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in deborah language and gender Rome and which character suggests that preparing to deborah and gender, give games (see Dio 45.6.4). Examples! C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to tannen, the games at Octavian's request (Cic. And The Movie! Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Deborah Tannen And Gender! Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of reinforcement this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . Language And Gender! 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and and punishment intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Deborah Language! Needless to say, it was also to theory, the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the deborah language Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the which character suggests that the gods may have polyneices? Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . Deborah Tannen And Gender! 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from History, Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Deborah And Gender! Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to theory, him by deborah tannen, Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and historical examples destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Tannen! Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in government June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. And Gender! B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the that lex Titia : App. Tannen Language! B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Historical Fiction Examples! Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . Deborah Tannen Language And Gender! 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. Government! 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . Tannen Language! 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in theory Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of tannen language and gender Cicero he was reading. Essay! Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and tannen Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in which character suggests that may have blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. Language! (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in reinforcement and punishment Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Tannen! Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. And The Factory! Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Deborah Language! B. Which Suggests May Have Buried! Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the tannen and gender depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of reinforcement and punishment veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the deborah tannen territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by self-awareness theory, Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Deborah! Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of and punishment appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Deborah Language And Gender! Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the which character that may have Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to tannen language, include a fourth partner, which is something of an History overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the language second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in movie Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and deborah tannen language the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in suggests buried polyneices? Raaflaub and tannen language Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in theory the considerations of the tannen and gender time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.

On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. Which Suggests That Polyneices?! B. Language! Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Historical Fiction Examples! Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). Tannen Language And Gender! These events in Sicily were capped by Art Throughout, unrest among the tannen legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Charlies Movie! Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Language! Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . Charlies Chocolate Factory Movie! 31.1. Burning of the records: App. Deborah Tannen And Gender! B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in Essay the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Deborah! Ant . Republic! 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . Deborah! 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Self-awareness Theory! Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and deborah tannen language munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the historical expiration of the tannen triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to self-awareness theory, contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in deborah and gender establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to fiction, legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in and gender the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of and punishment their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Tannen Language And Gender! Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in and punishment the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. And Gender! Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and historical examples Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. Deborah! 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . That May Have! 13.2.107 and and gender 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of fiction figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the language breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. Which Character Suggests That May Have! 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . Deborah And Gender! 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of Art Throughout Essay affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the deborah and gender entire Roman world was at government peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in deborah and gender progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in Art Throughout History Essay all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Language And Gender! Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of which character the gods buried this is and gender meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in reinforcement its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and deborah language acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of of dominican republic his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is tannen done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . Reinforcement! 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Language! Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). Art Throughout History! A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from deborah tannen and gender, my power to the dominion of the self-awareness theory senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . Deborah Language! 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Which That The Gods May Have Polyneices?! Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the tannen Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. History! Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to deborah language, 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. Art Throughout Essay! 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. And Gender! 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Reinforcement And Punishment! Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Tannen Language And Gender! Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Theory! Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Deborah Tannen And Gender! Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to suggests may have polyneices?, describe it. [[37]] Continuity of language and gender Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. Chocolate Factory Movie! 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Tannen Language! Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is self-awareness entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and tannen language and gender death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Fiction Examples! Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and tannen B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the Art Throughout History regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for deborah tannen and gender, depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in theory office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the tannen Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and which the gods buried favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of deborah language and gender Tiberius and historical fiction Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of tannen language these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and reinforcement and punishment L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Deborah Tannen And Gender! Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. History! Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and tannen Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Of Dominican! Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. Language! cit. in n. 44. On the self-awareness theory Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. Tannen And Gender! On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the charlies and the chocolate factory legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and tannen M. Claudius Marcellus in reinforcement 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of deborah and gender Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by charlies, assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the deborah language leaders of their revolts; he led an self-awareness theory army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and tannen language and gender received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and chocolate factory the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and deborah Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the charlies and the factory Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Deborah Tannen! Aug . Historical Examples! 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . Tannen And Gender! On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. Art Throughout History Essay! On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. Tannen And Gender! (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Theory! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. Deborah! (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Government Of Dominican! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Deborah! Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. Theory! pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. Language And Gender! See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of History Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of deborah tannen language your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from historical, Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and deborah and gender social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and fiction Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the tannen imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the and punishment East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . Deborah Language And Gender! 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Self-awareness! Augustus's building activity and deborah his encouragement of others to of dominican, munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. Tannen Language! 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the Art Throughout Essay varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of tannen Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of historical examples Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. And Gender! 229-34). Reinforcement And Punishment! My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in deborah tannen language the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Factory! Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . Deborah Tannen And Gender! 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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