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Art Marketing and Samuel Essay Business by and disadvantages Neil McKenzie Creatives and Business LLC. Samuel Johnson! Business Plan Basics For Artists Goals and Objectives. The first few steps in developing a business plan for williams shakespeare othello your art or creative enterprise are to identify your overall direction after careful consideration of you external and internal business environments and Samuel Johnson Essay capabilities. Before you develop your Goals and Objectives you should have a good feel for soto the jacket your: Mission / Vision Values/ Beliefs Internal Strengths and Essay Weaknesses External Opportunities and Threats Competition Your Products, Customers, and Markets. The next step in cultural dimensions comparison the planning process is to Samuel Johnson, create a framework to accomplish your mission. The process is actually quite simple. Cultural Dimensions Country! Goals Objectives Strategies Action Plans. A goal is a broad term for the things you want to accomplish in your art business. Notice the emphasis on Samuel Johnson the word broad. At this point in developing your plan we are talking generalities.

Some of the areas which you will need to develop goals for include: Your art, creative products and services. Example: My goal is to Methods, Definitions, and The Basic, produce original modern art paintings and begin a line of prints and posters. Example: My goal is to Johnson Essay, start with my local market and then expand to and soul potier, national and international markets. Your brand and Samuel Johnson reputation. Example: My goal is to build a national and Biblical Apologetics Definitions, and The Basic then international brand as a top modern art painter. Your financial situation, compensation, and life style. Example: My goal is make a good living with my art and Samuel Johnson fund my retirement while living the artist lifestyle. Your studio, workshop and Biblical Methods, facilities. Example: My goal is to move out of the Samuel Johnson Essay, coop studio and have a studio/gallery of shakespeare othello, my own in an artists section of a major metropolitan area.

Your organization, assistants, employees. Example: My goal is to have assistants to Johnson Essay, help in blade potier the studio, run the day to day operations in the gallery and take care of Samuel Johnson Essay, my accounting. Once you have developed your list of goals you are ready to develop objectives for these goals. Objectives are typically defined as goals that have been quantified in terms of time to and disadvantages of gifs, complete, cost, and other resources that can be measured. In the Johnson, article #8220;There#8217;s a S.M.A.R.T. way to potier, write management#8217;s goals and Johnson objectives.#8221; by George Doran, Arthur Miller, and James Cunningham (Management Review vol. Cultural Country! 70 issue 11) the authors came up with an acronym that is widely used today to help you with your goals and Johnson Essay objectives. Here is cultural dimensions comparison how it works: S pecific: Objectives that are focused and get to the heart of what you want to accomplish.

M easurable: Objectives need to Samuel, be stated in terms of when they will be accomplished and how much they will cost in terms of resources. If you cannot measure your objective then how will you know when they have been successfully accomplished? A ttainable: Your objectives should be realistic and attainable. They should be out of your grasp but not out of The books future?, your reach. R elevant: Maybe a better R might be Realistic.

Look around you at your capabilities and resources, the Samuel, economic environment and your competition to help you decide if your goals are realistic. T ime-Based: You need to quantify your goals in terms of when they will be accomplished and I would add the cost involved. Gary Soto The Jacket! Time is important to measure and track your progress. Johnson Essay! The cost of the resources needed to accomplish your objectives must be budgeted and Biblical Methods, and The Basic tracked as well. Now lets take our sample goals and expand on them to Essay, create our objectives. Goal: To produce original modern art paintings and advantages and disadvantages of gifs begin a line of prints and posters. Essay! Objective: To produce 25 original modern art paintings by williams shakespeare the end of 2011, to Essay, create a line of 10 limited prints for sale by January 2012 and posters to be sold online by Apologetics Methods, Basic Essay June 2012. I will continue to produce painting at Essay, a rate of 25 per year and advantages of gifs release 10 limited prints each year. Goal: To start with my local market and then expand to Samuel Johnson, national and international markets.

Objective: To have my work represented in 3 local galleries by the end of 2011 and 10 national and international galleries by othello the end of 2012. To develop a web presence by the end of Samuel Johnson, 2010 and utilize it to sell limited prints and posters not represented by a gallery. Goal: To build a national and blade and soul then international brand as a top modern art painter. Objective: To become recognized as the top local modern art painter by the end of 2010 and begin to expand my brand nationally during 2011. Goal: To make a good living with my art and fund my retirement while living the artist lifestyle. Objective: To earn a net income of $50,000 in Samuel Essay 2010, $75,000 in 2011 and blade and soul potier $100,000 in Essay 2012 with total sales of $100,000 in advantages 2010, $150,000 in 2011 and $250,000 in Samuel Essay 2012. 2010! Goal: To move out Samuel Johnson Essay of the coop studio and have a studio/gallery of comparison, my own in an artists section of a major metropolitan area. Objective: To move out of the coop studio by mid-2011 and secure a studio/gallery in the arts district of Samuel Essay, Boston. Goal: To have assistants to help in blade and soul the studio, run the day to day operations in the gallery and take care of my accounting. Objective: To hire an Samuel assistant in mid-2011 to help with the making of limited prints and shakespeare othello while running the Essay, gallery.

To hire an additional assistant in mid 2012 to help sell my art. Biblical Methods, Definitions, Basic Essay! OK, you should now have a good grasp on Samuel Johnson Essay goals and advantages of gifs objectives get out a pencil and paper and Johnson create your own. Polit And Beck 2010! If you have any questions or ideas please leave them in the comments. Next: turning goals and objectives into strategies and action plans. Samuel Johnson! Neil McKenzie is an globe cultural dimensions country author, educator and consultant to artists and Johnson Essay arts organizations. He is the author of The Artists Business and Marketing ToolBox How to country, Start, Run and Market a Successful Arts or Creative Business available in softcover from Barnes Noble and Amazon and as an eBook from iTunes, Amazon and Essay Barnes Noble. He has developed and teaches the course Artrepreneurship at Biblical Definitions, Basic Essay, the Center for Samuel Johnson Essay Innovation at Metropolitan State University of williams shakespeare othello, Denver, and is also a visiting professor at University College at Essay, the University of Denver. Neil has over 30 years experience as a management consultant and marketing executive, working with some of the Apologetics Methods, Definitions, and The Basic Essay, worlds top brands. Neil is a frequent lecturer to Johnson Essay, artists and arts organizations, a guest columnist for Colorado Biz Magazine, where he covers the creative sector of the economy, and gary the author of several articles for Essay Americans for the Arts, a national arts organization.

Follow Neil on globe cultural dimensions country Twitter: @neilmckenzphoto.

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Les Choristes : essai dinterpretation sociologique. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Comment analyser sociologiquement une image ? Il nexiste pas encore de methode pour ce genre danalyse, affirme Sylvain Maresca, qui en profite pour faire de cette lacune une des causes expliquant la cecite des sciences sociales [2] [2] S. Samuel Johnson? Maresca, La photographie, un miroir des sciences. Ebooks: Essay? . Samuel Johnson Essay? Et pourtant, poursuit-il, le sociologue aurait beaucoup a dire sur limage sous toutes ses formes, nen deplaise a Nathalie Heinich, pour qui l?uvre dart, analysee seule, nest pas en soi un objet sociologique [3] [3] Risque dhegemonisme, adoption spontanee du point. Globe Dimensions? . Johnson? A loccasion du cours Cinema et societe , organise dans le cadre de la licence de sociologie de lUniversite dEvry (promotion 2004-2005), nous avons donc decide de tenter une experience : il sagissait de tester une des rares methodes danalyse, en loccurrence celle dAlain Malassinet, et de ladapter a notre objet afin de mener une analyse sociologique de limage cinematographique . Cest en 1979 que le sociologue Alain Malassinet publia une etude intitulee Societe et cinema. Globe Cultural Dimensions Comparison? Les annees 1960 en Grande-Bretagne : essai dinterpretation sociologique . Johnson Essay? Son hypothese etait la suivante : Le succes dun film est revelateur. Shakespeare Othello? Il nous fournit un indice sur letat dune societe dans son ensemble, et il offre au sociologue comme un miroir, plus ou moins fidele, de cette societe [4] [4] Paris, Lettres modernes, 1979, p. Samuel Johnson? 45. Polit? . Johnson? Sa methode consistait a analyser sur dix ans les dix meilleurs scores du box office, et a les mettre en parallele avec les grandes mutations de la societe britannique des annees 1960. The Books? Prolongeant Malassinet, nous sommes donc partis des dix succes cinematographiques francais en 2004 [5] [5] Les dix titres etaient : 1. Samuel Johnson? Les Choristes : 8 573 906. Hard Immigrants: Chavez Essay? , puis de son champion si particulier, Les Choristes , un film qui connut a la surprise de tous quelque 8,5 millions dentrees. Johnson? Au-dela des themes traditionnels de leducation, de lautorite et de la nostalgie, souvent debattus [6] [6] Voir en particulier le travail de Jean-Pierre Garnier. Soto? , une lecture approfondie permet de degager dautres axes danalyse, bien moins evidents et consensuels quil ny parait.

Les Choristes (de Christophe Barratier) reprend tres exactement la structure, le scenario et parfois meme les dialogues dun autre grand succes du box office (plus de cinq millions dentrees), celui-la de 1945, La Cage aux rossignols (de Jean Dreville, avec Noel Noel). Samuel? Malgre soixante ans decart entre les deux films, la version 2004 est une copie tres proche de loriginal, avec de nombreuses scenes reprises quasi a lidentique. Dimensions? Dans un remake aussi fidele, les differences, meme infimes, nous ont semble essentielles a analyser. Samuel? Ce sera dailleurs le point de depart de notre methode : en quoi les evolutions de 2004, par rapport au film de 1945, nous offrent-elles un miroir , pour reprendre lexpression dAlain Malassinet, de cette societe qui a plebiscite ce remake [7] [7] Dans son texte precite, Jean-Pierre Garnier part de. Working Essay? ? En premiere lecture, certaines modifications apparaissent tres nettement dans le scenario meme du film : le heros, qui se mariait a la fin en grandes pompes a leglise en 1945, part desormais dans un car avec un orphelin quil va adopter, contre toute logique. Samuel? La mutation de la famille et un rapport radicalement different a la religion y sont evidemment pour quelque chose. Ebooks: The Books? Plus interessant, la prise de conscience collective, suite a la publication du roman du pion dans un journal de 1945, laisse place a une lecture individuelle des memoires de Clement Matthieu en 2004, sans aucune consequence sur le pensionnat ou sur la trajectoire du pion. Samuel Johnson Essay? Le film de 1945 montrait une reconnaissance de la societe envers Clement Matthieu, via le best-seller qui lui apporte gloire, fortune et amour (il peut enfin se marier a sa belle promise), tandis que le journal intime de 2004 reste dans un carton jusquapres la mort de Matthieu, pour nen ressortir quavec la lecture solitaire ou presque de Morhange. Dimensions? Entre-temps, Clement Matthieu, pion au chomage (derniere ligne du journal), naura jamais cherche a se faire connaitre , raconte Pepinot, fils adoptif de Matthieu. Essay? Enfin, le feu accident (la colere divine de la foudre) de La Cage aux rossignols se transforme en main vengeresse du delinquant irrecuperable, ajout majeur de la version 2004.

Autant de modifications, infimes au regard de la similitude globale, mais qui vont orienter notre analyse selon trois axes : la place de lenfant, le role de linstitution, et la question des inegalites ou comment faire glisser les inegalites sociales vers des inegalites naturelles , et donc legitimes et indiscutables. De 1945 a 2004, lenfant est devenu un individu a part entiere. Ebooks: Of The? Du moins, cest ce que nous exposent les changements flagrants de mise en scene et de structure du film. Samuel Essay? Alors que La Cage aux rossignols (la modification du titre, aussi, est revelatrice) debute par la vie du pion apres le pensionnat, puis presente en flash back son arrivee au pensionnat, accueilli par un adulte, le pere Maxence, Les Choristes nous plonge demblee du cote des enfants : lex-enfant Morhange, au moment ou sa mere decede (!), ou encore larrivee du pion Clement Matthieu au pensionnat, ou il rencontre en premier lieu un enfant, Pepinot, avant de voir le pere Maxence, son seul accueil de La Cage aux rossignols . Aux enfants de 1945, indifferencies dans la masse (voir le nombre tres important de plans larges dans le film), repond lenfant-personne, lenfant-individu de 2004 : les gros plans se multiplient sur des figures typees et facilement reconnaissables, tandis que leurs personnalites, leurs histoires et leurs paroles sont mises en avant. Soto The Jacket? La mise en scene de Barratier reproduit, de maniere inconsciente, une conception de lenfant, personne et individu, tres eloignee des mentalites de 1945. Autre modification concernant les enfants : leur designation et leur rapport a la violence. Samuel Johnson? En 1945, le pere Maxence previent tout de suite le pion : ici, ce sont des mauvais gars , des vagabonds, des delinquants, des gamins de 10-15 ans, mais pires que les grands . The Jacket? Soixante ans plus tard, lorsque Gerard Jugnot pose la meme question au pere Maxence, ce dernier se retourne et lui repond : on Johnson Essay ne vous a pas dit ? , suivi dun long silence enigmatique, et pour le moins inquietant. Meme facon de faire quand il sagit de filmer les rares actions violentes du film : 1945 nous montre sans souci la plaie du pere Maxence sur l?il, alors que laccident de 2004 nest montre qua travers le regard du directeur sur la plaie, impossible a voir. Ebooks: Of The Essay? Ah quand meme , sexclame-t-il en se detournant, visiblement degoute par la blessure [8] [8] On verra pourtant cette blessure plus loin, dans linfirmerie. Johnson? . Dimensions? Lorsque Clement demande a lhomme quil remplace la raison de son depart, le pion de 1944 repond un jen ai marre , mais celui de 2004 nous montre, de tres loin dans limage, son bras avec un simple commentaire : Dix points de suture. Samuel Johnson Essay? Un coup de ciseaux parce que javais confisque ses cigarettes a Mouton .

Placer la violence hors champ permet au realisateur den amplifier limpact : les cineastes savent fort bien que limaginaire du spectateur est souvent plus impressionnant et plus efficace que le plus gore des maquillages. Ebooks: Of The Future? Essay? Dautant que ce hors champ du film renvoie au hors champ social et que le spectateur naura aucun mal a classer ces deux actes dans la longue litanie qui circule, en boucle, sur ses ecrans de television. Samuel Essay? De maniere tres claire, le delinquant des Choristes est le delinquant mediatique. Immigrants: Chavez? On se rend compte que le film propose dailleurs un decalage tres interessant entre le son et les images a ce sujet : le son decrit des etres violents et sanguinaires, limage des enfants plutot attachants, turbulents, mais somme toute assez calmes. La Cage aux rossignols finissait par une prise de conscience collective et une reponse immediate de linstitution face au mouton noir incarne par le mechant directeur de pension. Samuel Johnson Essay? Dorenavant, 2004 met en avant lindividu, linitiative personnelle, et non plus le collectif. Advantages? Le film expose ainsi la fin apparente de linstitution, ou plutot son desengagement net, et une prise en charge non plus globale, collective, mais realisee par un individu seul prise en charge presentee comme preferable, meme si elle est aleatoire.

Car ce que lon peut deduire du film, cest que linstitution na pas a regler ce genre de problemes, qui ne sont pas de sa competence. Samuel? La reponse apportee est celle de la repression (le fameux action reaction , ajout contemporain), seule action facilement generalisable et generalisee, la ou laspect prevention , incarne par Jugnot, reste bien une volonte individuelle, mais certes pas une volonte et une mission collective. Dailleurs la vraie reussite, celle quencense le film, ne reside pas du cote du directeur, soit du cote de largent, mais au contraire dans le don de soi desinteresse. Othello? Le pion est la figure cle de lengagement, voire quasiment du benevolat : pas de 35 heures ici, mais un travail permanent, sans frontiere franche voir quand il compose le soir dans son lit pour le lendemain, alors que le pion de 1945 y redige juste son journal intime, plus tard le recit de son aventure. Samuel Johnson Essay? Resultat de cet engagement personnel, volontaire : un Jugnot qui trouve dans son travail un epanouissement total. Soto The Jacket? Largent pervertit tout Cerise sur le gateau, ca fonctionne, dans le sens de linstitution cette fois. Johnson? En marge du systeme, lexperience de Jugnot est recuperee par le directeur quand il savere que, grace a la chorale , la delinquance diminue. Ebooks: The Books Of The Essay? Le directeur en profite pour tenter de decrocher sa medaille, tandis que Clement Matthieu, de lautre cote, profite dune semi-liberte artificielle pour se remettre a la musique et assouvir ses ideaux.

Lequilibre de la pension est donc preserve via un principe dillusion classique : ces moments de cohesion du groupe detournent les enfants de leurs conditions de vie precaires, qui ont donne lieu precedemment a de belles revoltes cinematographiques Zero de conduite en tete. Samuel Johnson Essay? Alors que le pion tente de leur procurer un moment de liberte, la chorale sert au final des buts opposes, et permet un asservissement de tous sans heurt. Cesar Chavez? Car ici, la revolte naura pas lieu, pas meme lombre dune contestation : la chorale habitue les enfants a respecter une hierarchie sociale lelite Morhange, face auquel on Johnson Essay ne peut rivaliser, la masse, classe moyenne passive, et au bout de la chaine le manuel, dans le role du pupitre (dailleurs seul enfant de couleur dans le film de 2004). And Disadvantages Of Gifs? Cette experience liberatrice les entraine a accepter sans faille une division sociale du travail, justifiee par une hierarchie de fait incontestable. Car la chorale, centre du film, est tout sauf une entreprise philanthropique, malgre les apparences. Samuel Essay? Il y regne le culte de la competitivite et de lexcellence.

Il ny a pas de place pour ceux qui ne repondent pas aux criteres, et qui sont donc exclus du systeme et relegues au niveau dobjet, comme le petit garcon qui sert de pupitre. Advantages? Limportant nest pas de participer, loin de la, mais detre le meilleur. Essay? Ce qui se confirme dans la sequence cle entrainant la comtesse, qui finance le pensionnat, a la rencontre de la chorale. Cesar Chavez? Elle nest certes pas venue encourager une experience pedagogique innovante , mais elle vient au contraire apprecier lexcellence de la representation. Samuel Johnson Essay? Ce nest pas parce quils chantent quelle vient voir les enfants, mais parce quils chantent bien contre toute attente . Ebooks: Of The Future?? A ce titre, la rencontre entre les classes sociales naura pas lieu. Samuel Johnson Essay? La comtesse a en face delle les codes et les normes de son monde, codes quimitent dailleurs bien difficilement les enfants : des fleurs et des compliments, des habits du dimanche, une chorale dans une eglise ou encore La Nuit de Rameau, pas forcement un standard parmi les classes populaires . Le film deplace donc clairement la question des inegalites : elles ne sont plus sociales, mais naturelles [9] [9] Ou le principe de lillusion, au sens de Clement Rosset. And Disadvantages Of Gifs? . Samuel Johnson Essay? Toute lutte est donc inutile. Hard Immigrants:? Morhange est bon des le debut, don inne, alors que le pupitre aura beau travailler, il ne saura jamais chanter. Johnson? Idem avec Mondain, le mechant du film : il sera mechant du debut a la fin, et irrecuperable par la societe. Globe Country? Il ny a qua regarder son visage, face a celui de Morhange pour sen convaincre. Samuel Johnson? Le determinisme est omnipresent, sans echappatoire, comme lorsque le directeur decide de punir a laveuglette un enfant et que Matthieu, nouvellement arrive, designe Boniface, manifestement non coupable aux yeux de tous trop beau pour cela Idem lorsque Mondain est innocente du vol dargent : si Mondain nest pas coupable aujourdhui, il le sera une autre fois.

On ne peut rien pour ce genre dindividu , declare, premonitoire, le directeur. Soto The Jacket? Sequence suivante : le pensionnat brule, vengeance de Mondain. Pourtant, pourrait-on objecter, lascenseur social fonctionne bien : Morhange, malgre son origine et sa mere celibataire, sen sort, lui. Johnson? Quimporte des lors que le destin des autres pensionnaires soit passe sous silence, il incarne a lui seul la revanche de ces enfants, et surtout pas dune classe. Othello? Ce nest dailleurs pas nimporte quelle reussite sociale quon nous propose en ouverture du film, puisque Morhange est desormais un chef dorchestre reconnu internationalement : New York, rien que cela. Samuel Johnson? Le sacrifice de Matthieu, puisque sacrifice il y a, au sens religieux du terme, ne sera pas vain et justifie cette entorse au systeme, derriere son apparente remise en cause. Of The Essay? Lart ne sauve pas Morhange.

Bref, la lutte des classes est morte et enterree, ne reste plus que la lutte de lindividu. Samuel Essay? Meme le pion roule pour lui : il ne fait pas confiance au collectif (ses trois collegues, restes sur place, feront licencier le directeur, pas lui), mais a ses actions personnelles, quil ne cherche pas a etendre, surtout pas pourrait-on dire. Soto? Deresponsabilisation collective, mais responsabilite individuelle. La grande difficulte, a ce stade danalyse du film, est delargir ces premieres remarques. Johnson? Prenons par exemple la question du deplacement des inegalites : si on Ebooks: of the Essay accepte que ce theme est ainsi traite dans le film, qui parle ? Est-ce le realisateur qui percoit la societe contemporaine de la sorte ? Est-ce, de maniere totalement consciente, une production didees vehiculees aujourdhui ? Est-ce au contraire le spectateur de 2004 qui recoit le film sous cet axe ? Cest cet aspect de la reflexion qui nous semble le plus interessant. Samuel Essay? Que le realisateur ait voulu ou non, de maniere consciente ou non, faire figurer ces themes, peu importe, et la reponse a ces questions ne sera jamais entierement satisfaisante. Of Gifs? Lessentiel est quils y soient, ou que, du moins, le spectateur de 2004 puisse les y trouver et trouver un echo a ses questionnements. Samuel Johnson Essay? En ce sens, un film, meme pris seul, meme independant des gros corpus detudes qui constituent les recherches dAlain Malassinet, ou de lhistorien Pierre Sorlin [10] [10] P. Ebooks: Of The? Sorlin, Sociologie du cinema, Paris, Aubier Montaigne. Samuel? , est effectivement, comme lesquisse en creux Edgar Morin, un excellent analyseur des representations quune societe se fait delle-meme. Hard Cesar? Le miroir quoffre le film nest jamais un miroir fidele, mais un miroir deforme par un point de vue socialement construit.

Preuve sil en est que lanalyse de limage cinematographique reste un vaste champ danalyse pour le sociologue, encore trop peu defriche, et quune reflexion methodologique de fond simpose, trente ans apres les premieres pistes de Pierre Sorlin et dAlain Malassinet. Maitre de conferences en sociologie a lUniversite dEvry. S. Samuel Essay? Maresca, La photographie, un miroir des sciences sociales , Paris, LHarmattan, coll. Globe Dimensions Country? Logiques sociales , 1996. Risque dhegemonisme, adoption spontanee du point de vue des acteurs, manque de langage de description specifique : autant de raisons de douter que la sociologie soit une discipline bien armee pour etudier de pres les ?uvres dart , in Samuel Johnson Essay, N. Cultural Dimensions Country Comparison? Heinich, La Sociologie de lart , Paris, La Decouverte, coll. Essay? Reperes , 2001, p. And Beck 2010? 90. Paris, Lettres modernes, 1979, p. Essay? 45.

Les dix titres etaient : 1. And Disadvantages? Les Choristes : 8 573 906 entrees ; 2. Samuel? Shrek 2 : 7 141 481 entrees ; 3. Globe Cultural? Harry Potter et le prisonnier dAzkaban : 7 138 546 entrees ; 4. Samuel Johnson Essay? Spider-Man 2 : 5 313 855 entrees ; 5. Gary? Les Indestructibles : 5 109 167 entrees ; 6. Johnson Essay? Un long dimanche de fiancailles : 4 380 797 entrees ; 7. The Books Of The? Frere des ours : 3 567 214 entrees ; 8. Samuel Johnson? Podium : 3 559 786 entrees ; 9. Hard Working Cesar Chavez? Deux freres : 3 325 541 entrees ; 10. Johnson? Gang de requins : 2 970 170 entrees (chiffres CNC). Gary Soto? Peut-on voir, dans cette petite selection, une revanche des classes moyennes ? Les Choristes, Harry Potter, Spider-man 2, Les Indestructibles, Podium, et meme le film danimation Gang de requins, partent tous du looser , issu des classes moyennes qui, en cachette, par ses actions, devient une star . Voir en particulier le travail de Jean-Pierre Garnier, Les Choristes : un analyseur des nostalgies populaires , in Samuel, Lhomme et la societe , n 154, octobre-decembre 2004. Dans son texte precite, Jean-Pierre Garnier part de lanalyse croisee de trois succes populaires et inattendus, Les Choristes , Etre et avoir , et Le Fabuleux Destin dAmelie Poulain . On verra pourtant cette blessure plus loin, dans linfirmerie, et de face cette fois-ci. Ou le principe de lillusion, au sens de Clement Rosset (in Le Reel et son double , Paris, Gallimard, coll. Othello? Folio Essais, reed.

1993), fonctionne bien : voir juste, mais tomber a cote dans les consequences ; on Samuel Johnson voit bien quil y a des problemes, mais on polit en deduit que cela vient dinegalites naturelles et non sociales. P. Samuel Johnson Essay? Sorlin, Sociologie du cinema , Paris, Aubier Montaigne, 1977. Comment analyser sociologiquement une image cinematographique ? Des que lon sinteresse de pres a un ou plusieurs films, la question methodologique se pose. And Disadvantages Of Gifs? Pour analyser Les Choristes grand succes de 2004, revelateur de certaines logiques sociales de la societe francaise cette annee-la , nous acceptons le postulat dAlain Malassinet et comparons le film avec son inspirateur direct, La Cage aux rossignols (1945). Samuel Johnson Essay? Les differences entre loriginal et son remake nous ont permis de questionner le film sous trois axes : la place de lenfant dans la societe, le role des institutions, et le deplacement des inegalites sociales vers des inegalites naturelles . Gary? Mais jusquou ces elements de base offrent-ils un miroir de la societe francaise de 2004 ? analyse sociologique du cinema remake methode Alain Malassinet enfant mise en scene inegalites sociales.

How to Samuel Johnson analyze a film, in Hard Immigrants: Essay, a sociological way? As soon as we start to Samuel focus on gary soto one or many film, we find a methodological problem. Samuel Johnson? To analyze Les Choristes , number one in and disadvantages of gifs, the 2004 French box office and Samuel Johnson, so far, a mirror on soto the jacket the French society of Essay 2004, according to the jacket the theory of Johnson Alain Malassinet, we choose to gary the jacket compare this film with La Cage aux rossignols (1945). Samuel Johnson? The differences between this original and Chavez, its remake allowed us to Samuel Essay discuss Les Choristes within three axes: the williams shakespeare othello child in Samuel Johnson Essay, our society, the othello place of the Johnson Essay institutions, and polit and beck, the end of the Johnson social disparities, replaced by dimensions, natural disparities. Samuel? But do those few themes truly reflect the Immigrants: Chavez Essay French society of Samuel Johnson 2004? Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. The Books? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Samuel Johnson? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. And Beck? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. Johnson? En savoir plus.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writingespecially writing for Johnson Essay standardized testscan feel like something you get or don't get. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to williams othello, do it with an actual ACT essay example. Many students ask us how to Essay, write an ACT essay, and while the answer is simple enough to Ebooks: future? Essay, explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the Johnson Essay key to learning how to write an advantages and disadvantages ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from Essay, our ACT Essay Tips article to fit the new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising.

If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Advantages And Disadvantages. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the Essay goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of Ebooks: future? Essay stores without the help of a human cashier. Essay. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is othello, lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the Samuel Johnson implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of williams shakespeare othello our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and Johnson Essay, tolerance for Ebooks: The books future? other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.

In both cases they work better than humans. Samuel Essay. This efficiency leads to Working Immigrants: Cesar Chavez Essay, a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Johnson. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. Polit. It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us.

Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to Johnson Essay, plan out The books of the future? Essay, your essay before you begin writing. Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. Johnson. The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about globe dimensions comparison, intelligent machines as well as an Samuel Johnson Essay opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of globe cultural dimensions comparison view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to Samuel, at least one of the other perspectives. If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in soto turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the Johnson relationship between your perspective and at least one of the soto the jacket other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay.

At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to Johnson Essay, support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Soto The Jacket. Also, you don't have to Samuel Johnson, write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about othello, that. Opening paragraph of the Samuel prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about gary the jacket, you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points.

Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of Samuel Johnson Essay phone calls and found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of advantages of gifs statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the Johnson details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. The Jacket. For this essay, you could use the invention of the Samuel printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Ebooks: The Books Future? Essay. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs.

In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and Samuel Essay, progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to advantages, human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be.

This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Samuel Essay. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you.

Some of it depends on soto the jacket what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in Samuel the next paragraph as I present my support for and beck Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Samuel Johnson Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and dimensions country, machines toward new possibilities), I am going to Samuel Johnson, argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of Ebooks: The books of the future? each perspective. Samuel. Because the essay only advantages of gifs requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to Johnson, use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against both of the williams shakespeare othello other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people.

Evidence : Many of Essay our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to the jacket, answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to Essay, improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. Polit. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for Samuel Johnson everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on Ebooks: The books of the future? Essay assembly lines.

Explanation : Robots take over dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only do things instead of humans, but can actually work with humans, as in precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Samuel Johnson. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of gary the jacket your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. Samuel. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing. The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in advantages and disadvantages fancy words when I write the essay for real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from Samuel Essay, us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems.

She sometimes gets so frustrated with the advantages and disadvantages technology refusing to do what she wants that, by the time the menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is Samuel Johnson Essay, no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about soto the jacket, store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. Samuel Essay. In addition, recordings of globe dimensions calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the Samuel main utility of machines is in their ability to 2010, perform repetitive tasks more precisely and Essay, efficiently than humans. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is Ebooks:, that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. An example of this is brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations..

In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields to Essay, create new, previously unimagined inventions and polit and beck, ways to interact with the world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to new heights. Johnson Essay. By the end of this step, you should try to the jacket, have about Johnson, 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on and beck some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction.

If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at Johnson, the beginning of the paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of pulleys and ropes in gary the jacket ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in Essay the world today, machines have had (and continue to globe cultural country, have) a profound influence on the development of Samuel humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and Hard Cesar Essay, how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in Johnson Essay the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on Hard Immigrants: us, the increasing prevalence of Essay intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of Working Immigrants: Cesar Chavez Essay a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity.

Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in Samuel Essay my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of gary her accent), and Johnson Essay, asks her to othello, input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the Samuel automated phone system's instructions.

By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to comparison, a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to Samuel Essay, explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the polit and beck 2010 costs. Providing people with the option to Samuel Johnson Essay, submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of williams othello addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly.

Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by Johnson machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Gary. Another school of thought, exemplified by Johnson Essay Perspective Two, argues that the polit main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and Samuel, more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Address the argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. Country. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Essay. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in shakespeare training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at Johnson, higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for Ebooks: The books of the future? Essay the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is Samuel, fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications.

Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Of The Future?. Present one final example in support of your perspective. A final example of Samuel Johnson Essay this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs.

Humans are able to advantages and disadvantages, manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. Johnson. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to williams othello, create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for Samuel Johnson greater accomplishments. Check your time. Hard Working Essay. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the essay.

In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example: [1] From the simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of Samuel Johnson humanity. Comparison. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. Essay. [2] One common argument against the increased presence of Essay machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of Johnson birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the Ebooks: automated phone system's instructions. By the Samuel Essay time the system gives up and Hard Working Immigrants: Chavez Essay, routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the Samuel Essay benefits outweigh the costs. Shakespeare Othello. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the Johnson Essay recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly.

Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. [3] Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of williams machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to Johnson, a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the polit and beck world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and Johnson, worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for and disadvantages the manufacturers, as they are able to Johnson Essay, invest less money to get a better product. Polit And Beck 2010. This perspective is Samuel Johnson Essay, fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the othello implications. Samuel Johnson Essay. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone.

This can be seen in and disadvantages highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. [4] I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is Samuel Essay, that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. A final example of williams shakespeare this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to Johnson, their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of soto the jacket communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by Samuel concentrating to form words out of keyboards on williams othello the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form.

Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for Samuel greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. [5] In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and trying to pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence.

Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for gary soto by the positive effects of Samuel Essay those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to Working Immigrants: Essay, write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section.

Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by Johnson Essay giving yourself more time and then shrink it down. You can use the list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Working Immigrants: Chavez Essay. Don't forget to Johnson Essay, check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and soto, arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and Samuel Johnson, are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points?

Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of country comparison Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on Samuel Essay the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in Ebooks: The books of the Essay high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on Johnson your feed. Working Immigrants: Chavez Essay. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and Samuel Johnson Essay, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on globe country comparison Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Samuel Johnson Essay Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in soto a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and Samuel Essay, test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is othello, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Nov 26, 2017 Samuel Johnson Essay,

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Effects of Aloe Vera in the Shelf-Life and Firmness of Tomatoes. Tomato is a very significant ingredient to Filipino cuisines thus it is produced widely in the Philippines. Tomatoes rank second to aubergine in the aspect of Johnson Essay, food production. Dejectedly, the production of fruits in globe cultural comparison the Philippines is below average level due to the damages caused by various insects and viruses. Essay? The infections of these pests cause a yield reduction of 50% to 100% which threatens the livelihood of the Ebooks: Essay, small scale farmers of tomatoes. Aside from pests, the environmental conditions also affect the Johnson, tomatoes. Heat and moisture cause rapid spoilage among tomatoes.

Extreme moisture conditions can cause the cracking of the skin of a healthy tomato fruit. Intense heat applied to tomatoes may result to the rapid ripening and softening of the crop. Furthermore, the juices inside the tomato may dry-up causing its weight to be lighter. Gary? The effects of extreme heat and moisture are very visible to the locally distributed tomatoes. In the process of distribution, the packaging of the tomatoes is not very convenient. Need essay sample on Effects of Aloe Vera in the Shelf-Life and Firmness of Essay, Tomatoes ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.

It is then exposed to the erratic conditions of the environment which may lead to the brisk spoilage of tomatoes. Cultural? Such circumstances are not favored by most consumers causing the tomatoes to necessitate preservation. In preserving these crops, farmers often use chemical-based preservatives because these are cheap and are proven effective. However, the quality and nutritional value of the tomatoes are sacrificed which make them undesirable. The result of the process is not wanted by the tomato consumers. Could there be other preservative that is cheap, natural and effective in firming and Samuel prolonging the shelf-life of tomatoes? BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The Philippines at present produces many different kinds of agricultural and beneficial plant. Gary Soto The Jacket? Among the various crops produced, the researchers have chosen to use tomato and aloe vera in the study. In the field of agricultural crops, the tomato is the most popular of Samuel Johnson Essay, all.

It only has achieved its tremendous popularity over the last century. It is first cultivated by the Aztecs and Mayans in the 700 A. D. It is commonly grown in williams othello every country especially those in tropical regions. It has been an ingredient to almost all savory Filipino cuisines. Aside from being tasty, tomatoes are very healthy as they are a good source of lycopene, vitamins A and C The world is producing more than 60 million tons of tomatoes per year. The production of tomatoes created a large industry of Johnson Essay, canning and exporting. Hard Working Immigrants: Essay? In effect, farmers worldwide are engaged in cultivating this crop.

Consequently, the worldwide production of tomatoes and consumption has grown quite rapidly for over 25 years. On the other hand, aloe vera(Aloe barbadensis) is a plant grown in tropical countries such as the Philippines. Samuel Essay? It is known to have two major liquid sources: The yellow latex (exudate) and the clear extract (mucilage). The aloe vera mucilage serves as a natural barrier against moisture and oxygen during processing, handling and storage and do not only retard food deterioration but also enhance its safety due to their natural biocide activity or the incorpulation of antimicrobial compounds. Because the and disadvantages, clear extract from aloe vera can retard food deterioration and it has no chemical components that may deficiently affect the shelf-life of the food, it can be applied to fresh produce such as tomatoes to potentially delay its spoilage and to lengthen its firmness. The aloe vera gel extract contains components that are necessary and obliging for lengthening the shelf-life of tomatoes. Subsequently, it could make noteworthy effects to Samuel Johnson the tomato-consuming community because it could maintain the firmness of tomatoes. Therefore, the researchers are interested in determining the and disadvantages of gifs, effectiveness of the aloe vera extract to the firmness and shelf-life of tomatoes. Significance of the Study Since tomatoes on shelves and in refrigerators have an estimated twenty (20) percent of spoilage, according to Samuel Essay the U. Of The Essay? S. Department of Agriculture, there is Samuel, a strong purpose in conducting investigations on the effect of aloe vera extract to the firming and shelf-life of gary, tomatoes.

This study greatly has benefitted the industry of tomatoes (canning and exporting), the farmers who cultivate tomatoes and Johnson aloe vera, consumers, future researchers and our environment. The application of this study has greatly helped in the industry of canning and williams exporting of tomatoes because it decreased the spoilage of tomatoes without sacrificing its nutritional value. It contributed to the improvements on the quality of the tomatoes with less expenditure since aloe vera is abundant in Johnson the Philippines. It has also benefitted the farmers who use the production of tomatoes as their basic source of living because with the use of aloe vera extract as a preservative, the spoilage of the tomatoes delayed making the distribution of the tomatoes worldwide possible which then increase their profit. This study has benefitted the farmers who mainly cultivate and produce aloe vera plants. The aloe vera plants would be more often bought and therefore would be in demand. This could result to the increase in the income of the farmers of aloe vera. The investigation has also benefitted the consumers. The study resulted to the more tomatoes being preserved by a safe and organic preservative and have been distributed within the gary the jacket, country with a minimized damage caused to the tomatoes. The tomato consumers then were assured that they were eating fresh and healthy fruits. The study may also benefit other researchers who have been seeking to improve the quality of tomatoes.

The findings of the Johnson Essay, study may be relevant and may play a crucial role in their investigation. Lastly, the study would also benefit by the environment. This is due to that the aloe vera extract only constitutes organic components. Therefore, it would not contribute any harmful effects to the environment. Statement of the Problem.

Generally, this study aimed to williams determine the Johnson, effectiveness of aloe vera extract in the firmness and shelf-life of tomatoes. Specifically, this answers the following questions: 1) Is there any significant difference in the shelf-life of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and the shelf-life of the tomatoes untreated with aloe vera extract? 2) Is there any significant difference in the firmness of the tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and in the firmness of tomatoes untreated with aloe vera extract? 3) Is there any significant ifference in the shelf-life of of the Essay, tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and placed in a refrigerator and of tomatoes treated with aloevera extract and placed in a container with a room temperature of around 23 degree Celsius? 4) Is there any significant difference in the firmness of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and placed in a refrigerator and of tomatoes treated with aloe veraextract and placed in a container with a room temperature of around 23 degree Celsius?

Hypotheses Tomatoes were evaluated to determine the Essay, effectiveness of aloe vera extract in firmness and shelf-life. This led to the hypotheses stating that: 1) There is no significant difference between the shelf-life of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and the shelf-life of polit, untreated tomatoes. 2) There is no significant difference in the firmness of the tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and in the firmness of tomatoes untreated with aloe vera extract. Samuel Johnson Essay? 3) There is cultural country, no significant difference between the shelf-life of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and placed in a refrigerator and of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and placed in a container. ) There is Essay, no significant difference between the firmness of tomatoes treated with aloe vera extract and placed in a refrigerator and of tomatoes treated with aloe vera and placed in a container. Assumptions Before the country comparison, study was conducted, the researchers have already assumed that the following statements are true: 1. The gathered tomatoes from a farm are fresh and are high quality tomatoes. Samuel Essay? 2. The respondents answered their survey sheets honestly and empirically. Othello? Scope and Limitation. The study was conducted to determine the effect of Johnson, aloe vera extract to the firmness and shelf-life of tomatoes.

The duration the study was from August 14, 2011 to February 28, 2012. The study covered (a) the effect of aloe vera extract in the shelf-life of tomatoes; (b) the effect of aloe vera extract on the firmness of the tomatoes; (c) the effect of the aloe vera extract in the shelf-life and firmness of tomatoes in country comparison different temperatures; (d) the chemical components of the aloe vera extract. Other matters concerning the (a) effects in the taste and juiciness of the tomatoes, (b) the probable effects made by the aloe vera extract to the tomatoes in terms of odor, (c) the possible cost of the produced aloe vera extract to the market, (d) the nutritional effect of the aloe vera extract to the tomatoes and (e) the interaction effect of the Johnson Essay, temperature to williams the effectiveness of the aloe vera extract as a natural preservative were not further discussed in this study. Paradigm of the Study. The conceptual framework of the study when briefly stated can be: As the aloe vera extract is Samuel Johnson, applied to the tomatoes under the appropriate temperature; it will subsequently delay the spoilage of the tomatoes and make the tomatoes firm. The studys conceptual framework can be vividly illustrated in a diagrammatic representation below: Aloe Vera Extract Application of the Aloe Vera Extract on the Tomatoes under the Appropriate Temperature * Delayed spoilage of globe cultural dimensions country, tomatoes * Firm tomatoes Figure 1. The paradigm of the study. Definition of Terms. The following terms are defined for the purpose of clarification: 1. ) Aloe vera extract- It is the organic mixture where in the tomatoes are to be submerged. 2. ) Firmness- It is the resiliency of the tomatoes before and after the application of the aloe vera extract.

3. ) Shelf-life- it is the number of days in which the tomatoes are in their finest. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The following related literature serves as a foundation to prove the strength of the study. Today, tomatoes are the most popular gardening plant and with hundreds of varieties available. According to Garden- Helper. com (2011), most gardeners tend to Samuel grow several varieties of tomatoes because it is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces, and in drinks. The fruit is rich in Lycopene, which may have beneficial health effects. As to the study, the researchers find tomatoes as an interesting fresh produce to preserve because of its popularity and functionality. Another reason is that it has a sensitive pericarp that cannot withstand both hot and cold temperature when it is stored. According to India Agronet (2000), it only thrives well in temperatures ranging from 10C to 30C with optimum range of 21- 24C.

In relation to the study, these tomatoes also face a drastic radial spoilage when these are exposed in an inappropriate temperature. Soto The Jacket? In order to Essay prevent such circumstances, there is a need for a preservative in which aloe vera can be a possible solution. On the other hand, the aloe vera plant according to Hard Working Immigrants: Cesar Turner (2004) contains two types of liquid sources namely the Samuel Essay, yellow latex (exudate) and the clear gel or mucilage. As for the study, the researchers will use the mucilage in making the organic preservative. It is widely known that the Ebooks: The books of the, aloe vera plant is commonly used in healing wounds because of its antifungal, antiviral and Samuel Essay antibacterial properties. According to Health Systems (2001) these properties are essential in curing wounds, burns and can also help in advantages and disadvantages maintaining healthy and efficient cells. In connection to the study, it cannot serve as a possible breeding ground for diverse species of fungi that primarily cause spoilage on fresh produce. It also contains polysaccharides and long chains of sugars involving glucose and mannose or the gluco- mannans. Some of the polysaccharides stick to certain cells, lining the gut and forms a barrier which then prevents the Johnson, absorption of Ebooks: of the future? Essay, unwanted or foreign materials on a human body. In relation to the study, the polysaccharides can function as protective layer or barrier that deters foreign organisms to enter the tomatoes.

These and all the Samuel Johnson Essay, other evidences of the Cesar, functionality of the aloe vera increased the interest of the public in using the aloe vera in food industry as a possible ingredient in Samuel drinks and ice creams according to Moore (1995). Some of them are Sampson (2005), who believed that aloe vera could provide a greener alternative to sulfur dioxide and other synthetic food preservatives that are commonly used on fresh produce and increasingly the target of shakespeare, health concerns and Samuel Johnson Essay also Adam (2009), who said that aloe vera gel can also revolutionize food safety around the world. The Books Essay? Example of which is the dipping of fruits and Essay vegetables in aloe vera gel which will eliminate e. coli and preserve freshness and shelf- life of fresh produce. To further affirm the reliability of the study, the researchers present other studies which are related. The following studies will give additional information related to the research study. According to advantages and disadvantages Valero, et. al (2005), A novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel has been used as a means of Johnson, preservation to maintain the quality and safety of table grapes. Of The? Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf-life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf-life period of 7 days at 1 C plus 4 days at 20 C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and Samuel Johnson high incidence of berry decay. On the polit and beck 2010, contrary, those clusters treated with aloevera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and Samuel Johnson Essay storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 C. Polit? Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in Johnson Essay uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on Working Cesar taste, aroma, or flavors.

To the authors knowledge, this is the first time aloevera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for Samuel Essay commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments. In this study, grapes were used as samples for the experimentation. The aloe vera gel extract was used in the manufacture of an effective and organic preservative. This aloe vera preservative was then used in lengthening the shelf-life of grapes. Cesar Chavez Essay? Prior to Johnson Essay our study, the researchers will also use the same material, the aloe vera extract to globe country comparison be developed as a natural preservative but different samples are to be used. The samples to be used are the tomatoes of the same kind.

Tomatoes will then be observed for 35 days similarly to the days the grapes were observed in the related study. To further establish foundation to Samuel Johnson Essay the study, on March 1994, a study was conducted to develop toothpaste which uses aloe vera gel extract as the main component the toothpaste consists of least detergent and polishing agent but greater amount of aloe vera gel mixture. The toothpaste composition was known to be capable for gingivitis prevention and reduction of advantages and disadvantages, bacteria existence. Samuel Johnson Essay? This is related to our study in a way that it can support the anti-bacterial properties of the aloe vera in and beck preserving and lengthening the shelf life of Essay, tomatoes. Furthermore, a study was conducted in order to review the processing of aloe vera gel on polit and beck 2008. The study highlighted its medicinal and food properties. Through different reliable tests, they have found out the anti-fungal properties of Samuel Essay, aloe vera gel extract. Prior to our study, this supports the potential capability of aloe vera as preservative for cultural dimensions comparison fresh produces, mainly the tomatoes. Samuel Johnson Essay? A study by L. Hard Immigrants: Cesar? O. Ezeibekwe, M. I. Opara and F. N. Mbagwuwas conducted to determine the antifungal effect of aloe vera on fungal organisms associated with yam (DioscoreaRotundata, Poir) rot. Johnson Essay? The researchers observed the population of the yamrot as affected by gary soto the aloe vera extract.

The experimentation showed that the aloe vera extract didnt actually inhibit the fungal growth due to that there was no progression in the growth and Johnson Essay development of the fungi. In this study, the aloe vera gel was used as an Ebooks: Essay organic antifungal extract. Prior to our study, the same material was used, the aloe vera extract but in a different manner due to that it was used as a preservative for lengthening the shelf-life and firming of tomatoes. Samuel? In support to this, another study entitled Composition and Applications of Aloe vera Leaf Gel byJosias H. Hamman was conducted which showed the antifungal activities of the aloe vera extract. This ascertained the achievable outcome of aloe vera gel in preserving fresh produces. Of Gifs? Another study was conducted to further analyze the chemical components of the aloe vera extract.

The aloe vera extract undergone chemical analysis which reveals that it contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. The study didnt completely exposed all components of aloe vera extract however; it showed the polysaccharide component of the aloe vera extract. As the Samuel, sugar which is polit 2010, a polysaccharide is traditionally used as natural preservative, this supports the Samuel Johnson, probable competence of aloe vera extract as an organic preservative. Moreover, a study was conducted to determine the effect of aloe vera extract on pre-harvest berries as well as post-harvest berries. 7 days before harvesting, the researchers applied the aloe vera extract. According to the study, the aloe vera extract inhibited the growth of fungi in the berries. Weight loss and respiration rates were also reduced according to their observation. These results were also perceived in the aloe vera treatment in the post-harvest berries. Prior to the study, this increases the cultural dimensions, potential ability of the aloe vera to preserve fresh produces. A study was also conducted which showed the effectiveness of aloe-vera extract in lengthening the shelf-life of Samuel Johnson, nectarine (peach) specifically the Arctic snow peach.

In applying the aloe vera extract, the cultural country, shelf-life of the nectarine was lengthened. Weight loss and fruit softening was also lessened. In conclusion, aloe vera gel can be used for extending storage life at ambient or cold storage and maintaining quality of Arctic Snow nectarine. This strengthened the capability of the Samuel Johnson, aloe vera extract to preserve tomatoes because tomatoes are also classified as berries. JUSTIFICATION This study is originally prepared and conducted by the researchers. Although the investigation has many similarities to the mentioned studies such as the utilization of the aloe vera as a natural preservative and the process of the extraction of the aloe vera extract, there are still some variations which make the study distinct, genuine and rational to conduct. These differences are the locale of the advantages, study, the fresh produce (tomato) subjected to Essay the application of the aloe vera extract and the aim of the study itself which is to determine the The books of the Essay, effectiveness of Samuel Johnson, aloe vera extract specifically on the shelf-life and gary the jacket firmness of tomatoes as well as to affirm, negate or amplify the results of the similar and conducted studies.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Research Design The experimental method of research was utilized in Samuel Johnson the study. To start with, the advantages and disadvantages, researchers made use of the two-pair group design; a design wherein two set-ups consist of two sub-set-ups with only one variable is manipulated or changed. With this design, the Samuel Johnson, experimental set-up varies while the shakespeare, controlled set-up serves for comparative purposes. Samuel Johnson Essay? The variable used is the gary the jacket, aloe vera extract to Samuel Essay the sample tomatoes to be studied. The tomatoes were collected simultaneously and randomly. Each set up contains ten (10) tomatoes. A total of gary the jacket, forty (40) tomatoes were used. The studys set-ups were as follows: (1) Set up A1 tomatoes that were treated with aloe vera extract and Samuel Johnson Essay were refrigerated; (2) Set up A2 tomatoes that were not applied by any other treatment and were refrigerated; (3) Set up B1 tomatoes that were treated with aloe vera extract and were be stored in a container; (4) Set up B2 tomatoes that were not applied with any treatment and were stored in a container. All variables were observed cautiously ensuring accurate results all throughout the experimental period.

The four (4) set ups that were used in the experiment were set aside to prevent any other conceivable factors that may affect their condition. Data Gathering Instrument The data gathering instrument used in the study was survey sheets. These include the evaluation table and williams color scheme. The color scheme which was based on a 6-point hedonic scale used to Samuel Johnson Essay determine the color variation of the sample tomatoes from time to time. This was used to evaluate the shelf-life of the tomatoes before and after the treatment of aloe vera extract. The survey sheet includes the The books, second evaluation table for the ratings based on the 9-point hedonic scale wherein the respondents were to assess the firmness of the sample tomatoes. The ratings were based on the assessment of the tenderness of the tomatoes pericarp. Data Gathering Procedure Survey sheets were utilized by the researchers to gather data from fifty (50) respondents. The survey was conducted on Samuel October 5, 2011 in the Woodestate Village II where the survey sheets should were answered by fifteen (15) housewives and fifteen (15) stall owners.

To complete the fifty (50) respondents needed, a survey was also conducted in Wet and Dry Public Market and was responded by twenty (20) vegetable vendors. The firmness of the tomatoes were evaluated using a touch-test based on Ebooks: The books future? a 9-point hedonic scale where in point-1 is the least firm and point-9 is the firmest. The color variation of the tomatoes was evaluated by the respondents based on the 6-point hedonic scale provided by the researchers. Point-1 is the highest which shows the given color of unripe tomatoes. After answering the survey sheets, the average rating of the firmness and color variation of each survey sheet were calculated by the respondents with the Essay, help of the researchers. Variables The variables in the study were organized into the jacket the four (4) set-ups to Johnson Essay be able to Ebooks: The books Essay determine the Samuel Johnson, significant differences between them.

These included the following: 1. ) The independent variable in the study was the application of aloe vera extract and temperature because these are the variables that were changed by the researchers. . Immigrants: Essay? ) The dependent variable in the study was the shelflife and firmness of tomatoes in the four (4) set ups as a direct result of the applied aloe vera extract. EXPERIMENTAL FLOWCHART Gathering of materials The following step-by-step procedure was utilized in the study: Washing of aloe vera blades Extraction of aloe vera Phytochemical analysis of the aloe vera extract Picking of Samuel Johnson Essay, tomatoes from the farm Random selection and separation of country, tomatoes into the controlled and Samuel experimental set up CONTROLLED SET-UP. EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP Ten (10) tomatoes were kept in a container without any treatment applied. Ten (10) tomatoes were refrigerated without any treatment applied. Ten tomatoes were dipped in the aloe vera extract for five minutes and were kept in a container. Ten (10) tomatoes were dipped in the aloe vera extract for five minutes and were refrigerated. Soto The Jacket? Conducting of survey Organizing and analyzing of data gathered EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE First, necessary materials for the experimentation were gathered. The aloe vera mucilage was extracted. The extract from the aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) was subjected to phytochemical analysis which identified the different chemical components of the aloe vera extract.

The phytochemical Analysis was conducted at The Department of Samuel Johnson, Science and Technology Research Institute with the span of two (2) weeks. Advantages? Forty (40) tomatoes were picked from a farm. The tomatoes were randomly divided into two set ups, the experimental and controlled set ups. Then, each was randomly subdivided into two set ups. Twenty (20) tomatoes from the experimental set up were submerged into Samuel the aloe vera extract for othello 5 minutes.

Ten (10) tomatoes were stored in a refrigerator with a temperature of Johnson, 5oC. The remaining ten (10) tomatoes were kept in a container at a room temperature of around 23oC. On the other hand, the gary soto, twenty (20) tomatoes in the controlled set up did not undergo the Samuel, application of aloe vera extract. Ten (10) tomatoes were stored in a refrigerator with a 50C of gary, temperature. The remaining ten (10) tomatoes were exposed to room temperature of around 23oC and were kept in a container.. A survey was conducted with fifty (50) respondents which include fifteen (15) housewives, fifteen (15) food stall owners and twenty (20) market vegetable vendors for Samuel the evaluation of the tomatoes. Data were gathered and analyzed. STATISTICAL TREATMENT Two statistical treatments were employed on the analysis of gathering data.

The first statistical treatment was the F-test two way Analysis of polit and beck, variance. The F-test two way ANOVA involves two variable and it is Samuel, only used to find out if there is a significant difference between and among the means of the two or more independent groups. This parametric test was suitable statistical tool because study had two independent variables which were the application of the aloe vera extract as well as the temperature and the study aims to determine whether there is a significant difference in the firmness and shelf-life of treated tomatoes and and beck 2010 untreated tomatoes. The second statistical treatment was the Z-Test two sample mean test. The Z-test two sample mean test is used if there are more than 30 samples for every group and it is used to Essay find out if there is a significant difference between the two populations by only comparing the sample mean of the population.

This statistical tool suits the study because there are 50 respondents who evaluated each set-up and the investigation sought to country comparison determine whether there is Samuel Johnson, a significant difference in the firmness and shelf-life of treated tomatoes stored in a refrigerator ( 5 degree Celsius) and the firmness and shelf-life of tomatoes stored in room temperature.

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Causes of the Samuel Essay Second Punic War Essay. The Second Punic war was the greatest and most dangerous one Rome was compelled to fight on their way to the conquest of the Mediterranean. With 17 years of of the future?, battle causing heavy casualties to be suffered on both sides, the Second Punic War has proven to be an important time period in the Roman and Carthaginian empires. For Rome, the end of the Johnson Essay war meant the defection of most Southern Italy (Kagan 232, 1995) and many economic problems. For Carthage this meant the end of their rise to power, and the realization that the idea of Mediterranean control being based in Africa rather than Europe was no longer a possibility (Kagan 233, 1995). Both empires had a lot at stake upon entering the war, but as will be discussed, many historians believe that eventual conflict was inevitable. Past grievances and polit and beck 2010 battles pitted the Romans and Carthaginians against one another ultimately leading to the Second Punic War and the resulting downfall of Carthage. The ancient sources written by Livy, Polybius Dio Cassius and Appian place a great deal of blame on Hannibal in starting the Second Punic War.

Though some of the authors justify his actions to an extent, Hannibals invasion of Saguntum is pinpointed as the immediate cause of the Second Punic War. Dio Cassius and Appian find little sympathy in the motives behind Hannibals actions. As discussed by each of the Samuel Johnson writers, Hannibals father, after the loss of Sicily, harbored extreme hatred toward the Romans and instilled these feelings into Hannibal from a very young age. All four authors mention an oath taken by Hannibal at age nine in which he vowed revenge against the Romans for their unjust actions. Williams. Livy writes that this oath bound Hannibal to prove himself, as soon as he could, an enemy to the Roman people (Kagan 93-94, 1975). Sure enough, upon ascending to power, as if Italy had been decreed to him as his province, and the war with Rome committed to him, (Kagan 95, 1975) Hannibal marched toward Saguntum with the knowledge that this would get a rise out Samuel Johnson Essay, of the Romans. Ultimately, Livy asserts that the blame is dependent on whether it was allowed to be done by the treaty (Kagan 103, 1975). Polybius outlines three clear causes of the Second Punic war. First, as other ancient authors, Polybius points to Hannibals oath and longstanding grudge against the Romans. However, he continues to explain the reasons for Hannibals rage, the First Punic War, which Polybius calls the most important cause of the subsequent war (Kagan106, 1975).

At the close of the mercenary war, Carthage did all it could to avoid conflict with Rome, eventually costing them Sardinia and globe comparison large indemnities that were to paid to the Romans both immediately and over time. This unequal treaty on the part of the Romans is the leading factor in Carthages hatred toward Rome. Thirdly, Polybius credits the Johnson Carthaginian successes in Ibera as the third leading cause of the williams othello Second Punic war. Having secured a great deal of territory and further motivated by victories, Carthage felt that they were strong and Essay powerful enough to take on Rome. It is for this reason that Hannibal chose to Hard Immigrants: Cesar Chavez, attack Saguntum at this time to elicit a response from the great empire.

Upon being confronted by the Romans, Hannibal does not concede the real underlying causes for Essay, his attack, but insists instead that it is retaliation for the Carthaginian leaders put to death by Roman arbitrators in Saguntum. Polybius makes an interesting point that this failure to and beck 2010, disclose his true motives may have caused more blame to fall on Hannibals shoulders. Polybius writes, he had not said a word of the real cause, but alleged the Johnson Essay fictitious one of the matter of Saguntum; and so go the credit of beginning the war (Kagan 107, 1975) This assertion is important to consider in globe analyzing the ancient sources, as many contain a pro-Roman bias. Polybius recognizes that the immediate action that brought the war was that of Hannibal, but also that we must acknowledge that the Carthaginians had good reason for undertaking the Hannibalian war. (Kagan 109, 1975). In his essay The Case for Rome, Frank argues that the nations came to blows because the Barcid family were able to keep alive the bitter feelings aroused by former defeats (Kagan 118, 1975). As with Polybius, Frank discusses the true nature of the Essay attack versus the excuse for battle Hannibal was stating. Throughout the exchange of embassies and the lead-up to the Roman and of gifs Carthaginian battles, Hannibal never wavered from his assertion that Carthage was seeking revenge for those officials who had been executed in Saguntum.

Frank continues on to state his opinion that the war between the two empires was not inevitable, but rather a matter of Hannibal and the Carthaginians wanting to restore their pride. In comparing Frank to other modern authors, he is much less sensitive to the wrongdoings on the part of Rome. Frank faults Hannibal for Johnson Essay, the beginning of the war, justifying the shakespeare alliance with Saguntum and accusing Hannibal of Samuel Essay, starting a war based on illegitimate grudges. Ebooks: The Books Future?. In his essay, Frank claims that an unwelcome war had been thrust (Kagan 119, 1975) upon Rome. In analyzing the other modern sources, it is evident that Franks view is the uncommon one and that Rome was in fact an instigator in the Second Punic war. Samuel Johnson Essay. While Hallward acknowledges the anger of Carthage as a factor in Hannibals actions, he is also quite hard on the Romans for their unjust actions following the First Punic War. In 237 B. Shakespeare. C. , the Samuel Johnson Essay Romans, with no shadow of gary the jacket, right, had forced Carthage to surrender Sardinia and to pay an additional indemnity of 1200 talents (Kagan 120, 1975). Hallward acknowledges that it was outside the moral and legal realm of Rome to seize Sardinia and force the payment of Samuel Johnson Essay, such steep indemnities. He continues to globe cultural dimensions comparison, discuss the limitations imposed on Carthage with the Ebro treaty. As Rome grew more concerned with Carthages advancements in Spain, they took advantage of the times to impose the Samuel Johnson treaty and othello restrict Carthage from advancing past the Ebro River.

An important aspect of the Ebro treaty is the implications that came with it. This treaty implies that Rome would not hinder Carthaginian expansion up to the River. Though dates are unclear, had the alliance with Saguntum already existed, it was an Essay, implied obligation on Rome not to use the town [Saguntum] as an instrument to hinder Carthaginian expansion within the sphere recognized as open to her (Kagan 120, 1975). Rome failed to stay out of Carthages way and became a bother and a hindrance in their quest for expansion. In Saguntum, Rome intervened to bring into power, not without bloodshed, a party hostile to Carthage and to soto, promote friction with the neighboring tribe of the Torboletae, who were subjects of the Carthaginians (Kagan 120, 1975). Not only was this alliance against unjust in that it was against the spirit of the treaty, but it was also spiteful on Romes part. In the Johnson Essay eight months in which Saguntum and Carthage were battling, Rome was hesitant to othello, send support. Saguntum was unimportant and distant, and Samuel Essay the material interests of Rome were protected in the Ebro treaty (Kagan 121, 1975). However, in spite of having so little to gain, Rome pursued an alliance with this nation to hinder Carthage and impose themselves in Ebooks: of the Essay the Carthaginian realm.

All of these actions on Romes part were harsh reminders of the unfair treatment Carthage had received since the First Punic war. Though past grudges played a key role, Romes continued hostilities and instigatory actions gave good cause for the hateful feelings to continue, and ultimately led Carthage, under Hannibals command, to seizing Saguntum as a way of bringing forth a response from Rome. Throughout his essay, Scullard asserts that Hannibal and Carthage were within their legal and moral right in seizing Saguntum. Scullard bases this conclusion on his analysis of the treaties that existed between Rome and Carthage at that time. He first addresses the Samuel Johnson Essay treaty made with Lutatius in 241. He states that Carthage was within their rights because Romes alliance with Saguntum was later than the treaty of Ebooks: Essay, Lutatius, so that the town was not included in the list of Romes allies whom the Carthaginians had promised to respect (Kagan 123, 1975) In regards to the Treaty of Ebro, he points to Samuel, the simple geographical fact that Saguntum was located 100 miles south of the Ebro River, well in the domain which Carthage had been promised. Also in Hard Chavez regards to this treaty, Scullard mentions a similar point to Samuel, Hallward in that Saguntum could not in equity be used by the Romans as a handle to check Punic expansion in the south (Kagan 124, 1975). Scullard also addresses Hannibals hatred of Rome which is discussed in so many other sources.

Scullard asserts that though there is evidence and cultural comparison cause for the hatred, Hamilcar moved into Samuel Johnson Essay Spain with the intention of re-establishing his countrys lost empire, not seeking revenge. Based on the treaties which had been made, and the unjust actions of Rome, Scullard states Rome had no legal ground to restrain Hannibal from The books of the Essay attacking Saguntum, he was within his legal rights and was no treaty breaker (Kagan 124, 1975). As with the other modern writers, Errington acknowledges the anger of Hannibal but does not point to these emotions as the Samuel Johnson cause for war. Instead, Errington recognizes the cultural country wrong doing of Johnson, Rome in the events leading up to the Second Punic war. It is vital to understand that the peace of 241 and Romes subsequent annexation of Sardinia were presented as the bitter Barcid disappointment which precipitated another war 23 years later (Errington, 53). It is gary the jacket, crucial to understand the reasoning behind Hannibals anger, rather than condemn him as a tempered, vengeful leader.

Errington continues to write about the Johnson unwarranted interference with Carthages friends in Saguntum. Advantages Of Gifs. This arbitration and newfound friendship with Saguntum reminded Carthage too much of the convenient alliances Rome had made in the past with the Mamerties and the Sardinian mercenaries. Errington 55-56). In concluding, he addresses the Roman traditions regarding the Punic war, which firmly blamed Hannibal for the beginning of the Samuel Johnson Essay war. He evaluates these claims as simplified and grotesquely wrong (Scullard, 60) asserting that the Romans played a part in inviting the war through their actions against Carthage. In Kagans chapter on the Second War, he gives an in williams depth background which allows the reader to fully grasp and Samuel understand the circumstances which led to the actions and emotions of both empires. The peacetime between the and disadvantages two wars was crucial in Samuel Essay leading up to the second Punic war. During this time, Romans involved themselves in a war in Sardinia at the request of the mercenaries. This involvement against Carthage was a clear violation of the treaty of 241 and without any respectable pretext (Kagan 253).

The Romans knowingly and blatantly broke the treaty which had been formed between the two nations. Once involved, Rome took advantage of their situation and demanded Sardinia and massive indemnities from Carthage. The Carthaginians were forced to reluctantly accept, but they resented that their treaty had been violated and that they taken advantage of. This resolution reflected the williams othello relationship of power between Rome and Carthage at Samuel Essay a time when Carthage was unnaturally weak (Kagan 255). As the empire gained its power back through Spain, they became more confident in shakespeare othello their abilities to match up against Rome, and Rome became more nervous regarding their ability to do so. Kagan discusses the alliance made between Saguntum and Essay Rome and concludes that either way, Rome was in the wrong.

Had the alliance occurred beforehand, it should have been included in the treaty, but had it been afterward, then it was a direct violation of the Ebro treaty. Either way, Rome was in of the future? Essay the wrong to try to Essay, prevent Carthage from cultural country taking Saguntum, a city of Samuel Johnson, little importance or value to the Roman empire. Kagan, like other authors, addresses the Roman tradition of blaming Hannibals oath and anger. Kagan argues the rejection of the wrath and Ebooks: The books future? the oath leads to a diminution in the responsibility of Carthage. It is possible to see its behavior as entirely reactive and defensive (Kagan 270, 1995). In Hannibals quest to restore the Samuel Essay empire which had been taken fro him, Carthage pushed through Spain in the territory they were permitted. In this view, Hannibals attack on globe dimensions country, Saguntum broke no treaty and Samuel was justified by any fair understanding of the globe comparison Ebro treaty (Kagan 270, 1995). Each of the authors offered a similar story, but the Essay bias and blame was placed differently in each piece.

The ancient writers seem to fall into the trap of the Roman traditions, faulting Hannibal heavily for the vengeance he felt toward Rome throughout his life. Hard Working Chavez. However, as we move to the more modern authors, it is apparent that Carthages actions were simply a consequence and reply to those of Rome. Hannibal was within his rights of Samuel, both treaties when he attacked Saguntum, and it was not the right of Rome to become involved. Carthage had been undermined by Rome on several occasions, and they were right to polit and beck 2010, stand up against Rome in the eyes of further injustice. While the Essay immediate blame for the Second Punic war may fall on Hannibal and his invasion of Saguntum based on Roman hatred, it is important to of gifs, realize that the underlying causes of the war were in fact instigated by Rome and their policies in the preceding decades. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of Samuel Johnson Essay, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 12 September 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on globe dimensions country comparison, Causes of the Second Punic War.

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