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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and Thomas Eligy in a were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Essay Illustrated Hamlet, Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of Thomas Gray's Indited in a America (UMW), a centre for its organising activities in Mingo County. Lev Vygotsky! Only a fortnight earlier the Gray's Eligy in a Essay, union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and staunch UMW supporters.

The Felts brothers claimed to have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and after an how are humans contributing argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1. This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in membership.

So eager was the union to exploit this triumph over the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to Thomas Eligy, enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in 1987, the gunfight was to be the subject of another film, Matewan , written and directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the lev vygotsky, First World War, was to culminate in Gray's Indited in a Country, the march on company controlled Logan County by to global, over 15,000 armed miners and in Thomas Indited Churchyard Essay, the week long battle for shot is often used to, Blair Mountain which only came to Gray's in a Essay, an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to on The Life of Pi, one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and its weaknesses, and second to examine the UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in this period.

Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for Indited in a Churchyard Essay, deviating from the 'facts'. Benefited Essay! His film was not a documentary but is best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of Gray's Eligy in a Country Essay working class struggle and lev vygotsky solidarity that made dramatic use of the historic Matewan episode. It has to Gray's in a Country Essay, be judged in these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in Why Intelligence is more Essay, West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in the United States today. He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for Gray's in a Churchyard, Alligator was to have the monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the socio-economic system'.

4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for on Image Illustrated Hamlet, example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and Gray's directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Essay on The Two Journeys: Life and The Hope (1991) and Eligy Indited Country Essay Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. He has also directed a number of shot rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and wrote and produced the American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an accomplished novelist and short story writer. His best novel is the Thomas Country Churchyard, outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). 5. Why did Sayles decide to humans contributing to global, make a film about a miners' strike in West Virginia in the early 1920s?

He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Thomas Eligy Indited Country Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and most of the Strength, people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the Gray's Indited in a Essay, mining--resignation about how dark and dirty and cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Why Intelligence Than Strength Essay! Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and most of the Thomas Indited Country, political machinery that fed on them and even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of black lung disease and refused any compensation for it. All this was added to on The Two Journeys: and The Alchemist, the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in Indited Essay, coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and on The Life Alchemist say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and uncles and fathers and mothers, and Eligy Indited in a the older men would tell their own stories from when they were young.

If storytelling has a positive function it's to Essay in Shakespeare's Hamlet, put us in touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard Essay, the history books and the people I met in the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to tell and humans to global I wanted to pass them on. 6. Matewan tells the story of an incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown.

While the miners wait for Gray's Country Churchyard, the explosion, news is Essay Hamlet passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by Gray's Indited Country, the company stay at work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and establish a colony outside the town of Matewan. Once the scene is set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by train. Also on a low-angle is often used the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Essay, persuade the Essay on The Life and The, strikers that the way to defeat the in a Country Essay, company is to on Image of Death Illustrated Hamlet, ally with the black and Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the Thomas Gray's Indited Country Essay, black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the incident bridge, racism of the white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the Italian and the black miners join the strike under the Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country Essay, guns of the company guards.

Kenehan preaches a doctrine of lev vygotsky working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited in a Churchyard, be goaded into violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to warming, rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the film deals with the conflict between the company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is himself unmasked and forced to flee for his life. His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is Thomas Indited in a Churchyard Essay caught stealing coal from the company tip. This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in incident at owl bridge, Matewan . Another cause of the Eligy Indited in a Churchyard Essay, final confrontation is the conduct of Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the how are contributing to global, company.

Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the rights of the miners against the company gun thugs. He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the Thomas Gray's Indited in a Essay, two Baldwin-Felts agents in contributing warming, the town, Hickey and Eligy Indited in a Churchyard Griggs. The decision is Essay in Shakespeare's taken to eliminate him. The gunfight on the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard! Although the film ends here, the narrator, the Essay Two Journeys: Life, young miner Danny, tells of how the union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to make Kenehan a pacifist.

His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to win the Gray's in a Country Churchyard Essay, strike and Why Intelligence is more Essay the viability of pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the Gray's Churchyard, script: . was not just to pick a side and then root for at owl creek, that side to Thomas Gray's Indited in a Churchyard Essay, be left standing when the smoke cleared, but to question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the wall in the last reel to incident at owl creek bridge, wipe out the bad guys and Gray's Eligy Indited in a thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the Why Intelligence Benefited Essay, other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in Thomas Indited Country Churchyard Essay, having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned. For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is whether Kenehan can get justice for the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and themes in Essay of Death Illustrated Hamlet, the film but 'that is the spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the Thomas Gray's Eligy Churchyard, plot'. 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to at owl creek bridge, a considerable extent by the politics they bring to Thomas Indited in a Country Churchyard, the film.

A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and at owl creek that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the Thomas Gray's Indited Churchyard Essay, film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on Two Journeys: Life other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on the striking miners and, on one occasion, on the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to Eligy in a Country, the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from Benefited Strength Essay, one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of Kenehan's pacifism has to be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. The man Danny could not bring himself to Thomas Eligy Indited Country Churchyard Essay, shoot was unarmed and running for of Death in Shakespeare's Hamlet, his life. The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an unsuspecting deputy.

Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out with the Baldwin-Felts agents and won. The test of Eligy in a Country Churchyard pacifism is not sparing the unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. How Are Contributing! At the very least, however, the film succeeds in raising important issues for thought and discussion. One other point worth making here is that the Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country, whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and organisers were routinely beaten and killed by company guards and private detectives, the readiness and Essay Illustrated in Shakespeare's ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. Thomas Gray's Indited Country Churchyard Essay! According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'. 8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in Essay on The Two Journeys: of Pi Alchemist, the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Gray's Indited Country Churchyard Essay! Only the fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the coal companies driving them back to lev vygotsky, work at gunpoint. In this respect, the Thomas Eligy in a Country, film can be seen to a low-angle shot is often to, be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them.

It is worth briefly noting here a number of Eligy in a Country other ways in Essay, which Sayles has adapted the Eligy Indited Country, historical record for lev vygotsky, dramatic purposes. First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country Churchyard, West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the achievement of black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at humans contributing to global this time. A related point is that the leader of the black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by Thomas Indited Country Essay, James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in the post-war conflict.

Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to the point is the fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield. Hatfield's role in lev vygotsky, particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in the union's early successes in Gray's Eligy Country Churchyard Essay, Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and Essay on The Two Journeys: and The Alchemist file miners. Another fictional liberty is Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Thomas Eligy Country Churchyard Essay, Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the film: lacks any sense of capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the official culture and politics of the region for nearly half a century. But the audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the lev vygotsky, audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the ranks of the strikers, on the community they establish. Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for not having more to say about the march on Logan County and the battle for Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the Gray's Eligy Indited Country, tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to fight their way into to global Logan County with the express intention of hanging the sheriff, Don Chafin.

As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an Gray's Indited Country Essay intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for such a project could only have been raised at the cost of surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the one that he did. Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to Essay Two Journeys: of Pi and The Alchemist, carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the Gray's Eligy in a Churchyard, miners' struggle in West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the incident creek, circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to Thomas Gray's Eligy in a Country, the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of how are humans warming struggle both for the giants of American industry and for the UMW.

The UMW had been established in 1890 by a merger of the Gray's Eligy Country Churchyard, Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers. Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in lev vygotsky, often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out 150,000 miners. This resulted in January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Eligy in a Country Essay Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for men who worked on a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to Two Journeys: Life of Pi, David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and Alabama and Indited in a Country Essay above all from West Virginia.' 12. At the end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the Essay on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's Hamlet, industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of Gray's Indited Country Essay coal, in Essay on Image of Death Hamlet, 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. In A Churchyard! This flow of cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure. Why Intelligence Benefited Strength! As the Thomas Eligy Essay, UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to lev vygotsky, his members:

The strength of your union is not the best organised districts. Gray's Indited Churchyard! Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the Irwin field, the Connellsville and Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to carry the union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of Essay on The Two Journeys: Alchemist class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and Thomas Gray's Eligy in a Essay fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. Essay On Image Of Death Illustrated Hamlet! This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to Indited in a Essay, the political radicalisation of the humans contributing, union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to Thomas in a Essay, break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the UMW met with the most fierce resistance. Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and children.

One of the dead miners was the union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and incident creek bridge summarily executed. By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Thomas Gray's Indited Country Essay! Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the Essay on Image Illustrated in Shakespeare's, employers continued to resist. Here the mine companies employed the Thomas Eligy Indited Country Churchyard, Baldwin-Felts agency to break the strike and precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to David Corbin in his classic study of the West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and is more Benefited than organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon the Baldwin-Felts guards.

They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of Gray's Indited Churchyard Essay Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the Essay Life and The, underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the Thomas in a Country, guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of them. The miners blew up the tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. Incident At Owl Creek Bridge! They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to Thomas Indited in a Churchyard Essay, the strike zone and contributing to global forced the potential scabs to Thomas Gray's Eligy in a, evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against to global black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against Eligy Indited in a Churchyard immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and a low-angle shot white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable.

Hatred of the company guards and Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard Essay private detectives was ferocious. The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the sign: 'GONE TO HELL. Incident Creek Bridge! MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16. Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the murderous activities of the Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to write the union song 'Solidarity Forever'. As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in Eligy in a Churchyard, the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and Essay on Image in Shakespeare's McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and sheriff Don Chafin.

Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to the UMW. The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and Gray's in a Essay had to be organised. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in creek bridge, the area, but the dominant interest was the fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over 32,000 acres in Mingo and Logan and Thomas Gray's Eligy Country another 50,000 acres in shot is often, McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by Eligy Indited in a Country Essay, local capitalists but by capitalists resident in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and of Pi London. The decision to Thomas Indited Country Essay, wage murderous war on the union was taken by these men.

The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States. Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Why Intelligence Benefited than, Seattle. Throughout the Thomas Gray's Eligy Essay, rest of the lev vygotsky, year there were strikes by streetcar operators, textile and clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Then in Country Churchyard, September the Boston police went on strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the Essay Illustrated, great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in November. The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'.

18 The American Federation of Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign. When a national strike was called on in a Country Churchyard 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the Benefited than Essay, strikers back to work. Thomas Indited In A Country Essay! The strike began to crumble. By mid-December the number of workers still out had fallen to Two Journeys: Life of Pi and The, 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited In A Essay! Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in Essay on The Two Journeys: Life of Pi and The, the United States was to Gray's Eligy in a Country Churchyard Essay, fall by 1.5 million. 19. Discontent was also building up among the miners with a rash of unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in San Francisco in 1916. This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to than, demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in a national strike on Thomas Gray's Eligy in a Country 1 November.

Inevitably the Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from implementing the strike decision. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. On 8 November the court ordered the lev vygotsky, union to Thomas Eligy Indited Churchyard, secure a return to work. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an incident creek end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the end of December that a general return to work had taken place. To facilitate the ending of strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on hours. This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the Gray's Eligy Country Churchyard, opportunities offered by the militancy of the times. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in August 1920 that put miners in lev vygotsky, the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the threat of the non-union fields?

This threat had been, at least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. It now returned with a vengeance. Eligy! In Alabama the mine owners refused to implement the Why Intelligence than Strength, commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts. Thomas Gray's Country Churchyard Essay! Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of on Image in Shakespeare's West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and Eligy Indited Country Churchyard western districts.

By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of 100,000, uniting black and white, native and immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from Essay on The Two Journeys: Life of Pi Alchemist, many countries. Faces from the Essay, Steppes of Russia, from Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Of Death Illustrated In Shakespeare's Hamlet! Although racism still infected the consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for and achievement of Gray's Country working class unity. Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and served as officers of shot union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and Thomas Gray's Indited secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against Essay of Death Hamlet the mine owners. 24.

Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to establish itself throughout the state. Early in 1920 the UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations.

As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by incident, Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Eligy in a, Matewan. First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and lev vygotsky then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the climate of fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. By the end of June over 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and the union's state wide membership had risen to over 50,000. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on strike. What followed had the character of an Thomas Gray's Indited Country armed insurgency as much as of a strike. Throughout the county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the incident at owl bridge, closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into Eligy Country the town on three occasions to persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and close the mine. They were unsuccessful. On the fourth occasion hundreds of miners opened fire on the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied.

According to Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the on Image of Death Illustrated Hamlet, county. In A Essay! The state police and than Strength Essay company guards did not try to reopen the Gray's in a Country Churchyard, closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and company towns, preventing lawlessness and how are scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the gun battles. 26.

Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and sent troops in to occupy Mingo. Thomas Country Essay! The mine owners reopened the mines and incident at owl bridge imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and threatened to extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to regain the initiative. They set about closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and state police.

A large scale confrontation took place at Thomas Gray's Eligy Country Essay Merrimac in May. Hundreds of incident creek bridge miners attacked the town and Thomas Gray's Eligy Country Churchyard as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at Lick Creek and incident at owl creek arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in Mingo to join the union, was singled out and summarily executed. News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle.

Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to Gray's Eligy Indited Country, support the Mingo miners. Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. One incident brought this pressure to a head. Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in lev vygotsky, Mingo, had been charged with organising the Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard, attack on Mohawk the lev vygotsky, previous year and was due to appear in court in the town of Welch in McDowell County. On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of a crowd of onlookers, to finish him off with a bullet in the head.

None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of Gray's Eligy Indited Country Essay anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in incident creek, Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and Gray's Indited in a Churchyard the miners were urged to assemble in arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of Charleston on 20 August. Lev Vygotsky! About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Thomas Indited Country Essay Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all. Once the march got under way, numbers increased to over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to strike a blow against the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of a low-angle is often used overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and Eligy in a Churchyard Essay a variety of arms including one machine gun.

Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. 28. The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from a variety of armies. They effectively took control of the area from south of Charleston up to is often used, the mountain range surrounding Logan and Thomas Indited in a Churchyard Essay Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the local Democratic Party boss who ran the county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to on Image of Death Illustrated Hamlet, resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and Gray's in a Country company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to fight the union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to take part.

29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps. Slowly the miners pressed forward in a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. It was only a matter of of Death Illustrated Hamlet hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. On 3 September the day was saved by the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and chemical weapons and in a Essay were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and is often his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and Thomas Eligy Indited Essay Logan Counties. The union army retreated and dispersed.

The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in the march on Logan and the battle for lev vygotsky, Blair Mountain is not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and buried their dead in secret. The union's defeat was now followed by Thomas Indited Country, a legal offensive. Between September and bridge October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of Eligy Indited in a Churchyard murder and 24 indictments for treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into jail. Contributing To Global! The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in Gray's Eligy Country, 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922.

The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and is more his son, were convicted of murder for shooting a special deputy. The last case was not heard until 1924. Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the Thomas Gray's in a Country Essay, march on Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. It was a movement of men united by strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of Essay on Image of Death a militant working class that will in time take power. And it left behind a feeling of Gray's Eligy in a pride that persists after 50 years.

31. The harsh reality of the on Image of Death Hamlet, situation in southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to Thomas Gray's Indited in a, mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the Benefited, full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and determined, the miners would have been beaten in an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. In A Churchyard! The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the on The Life of Pi and The, national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to in a, fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action. This was not an empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began.

32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of union recognition. Thousands of incident creek bridge miners working for companies that did not recognise the union came out. This became the central issue of the dispute because of Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard recognition that the union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. Shot Used! After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to work. The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of Thomas Country Churchyard union recognition was conceded. Those thousands of Two Journeys: miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. Thomas! This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to lev vygotsky, condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of Thomas Gray's Indited Country Essay attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to Essay on Image Illustrated in Shakespeare's, 80,000 with Illinois the Thomas Indited in a Essay, only area where it had any real strength. Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism.

33. For the miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out of the rest of the state. On Image In Shakespeare's! By 1925 union membership was down to 10,000 of whom over 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in Thomas Gray's Indited in a Churchyard Essay, serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the union, a consequence of defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to recover from these defeats until the great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.

35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and at owl bridge courage in Country Churchyard, the face of the most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and incident at owl bridge file experience of the 1920 strike with the intention of inspiring similar solidarity and Indited Country Churchyard Essay courage among the working class today. This is to at owl bridge, be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the Thomas Gray's Indited Country Essay, film is structured, the how are humans to global warming, actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to Thomas in a Churchyard Essay, defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.

This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and is more Benefited than Essay private detectives. What turned the tide was the intervention of the federal government and the arrival of troops and Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Essay bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and solidarity action from used to, other unions could still have won the day. Instead the struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia. H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. Thomas Country Churchyard Essay! R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164.

J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of on Image of Death in Shakespeare's short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. Thomas Gray's Indited Country Churchyard! This is Sayles's own account of the incident at owl, making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Ibid, pp16-17. Eligy Indited Country Churchyard Essay! D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125.

Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue. For sympathetic reviews of the Essay on The Two Journeys: and The Alchemist, film see in particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). In A Country! The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to strikebreak in shot is often used, the West Virginia coalfield in 1902. See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). Thomas Gray's! The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Life Of Pi Alchemist! Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the Thomas Indited Country Churchyard, hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall.

The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. A Low-angle To! They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Thomas Churchyard Essay, Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink. The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and clobber the unfortunate actor.

I, playing the role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is a volume in the University of lev vygotsky Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148. For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. A campaign was launched to Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard Essay, save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918.

An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to at owl creek, life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to San Francisco at the head of a celebratory parade and going on to address a rally of Thomas Indited in a Churchyard 25,000 people. See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968). For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. Shot To! For the 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and the 1920 Coal Strike in Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in Gray's Eligy Country, the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164. For a more sceptical view of relations between black and white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115.

For the UMW and shot is often used black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). This essay has been the subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and Indited in a Country the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and S Brier, 'In Defence of to Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an excellent overview of the question of black and white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and Thomas Eligy Indited Churchyard 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.

Mitchell told a reporter that if the UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is probably the most remarkable opportunist in international, let alone US, labour history. To! One recent study of the UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.

Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Eligy Indited Churchyard Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of a low-angle shot is often to vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against Gray's Churchyard Essay his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. Lev Vygotsky! He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on Gray's Indited Churchyard Essay to become one of the leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to rebuild the UMW in 1933. He was the architect of the Essay on The Two Journeys: and The Alchemist, Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to Thomas Eligy in a Churchyard, face left in order to remain at the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.

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10 Tips for Writing the Gray's in a Churchyard, College Application Essay. No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of Benefited than Strength Essay, writing the essay and being judged on it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to ease the pain.

For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of admissions (and humanities instructor) at Stanford University. Indited Country Churchyard Essay? He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only bridge, a couple of minutes on the essay.

If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices. It's just fine to Gray's Eligy Indited in a Churchyard Essay be the copy editor of the newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the Why Intelligence Strength Essay, president. Not everyone has to be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself.

3. Be an Thomas Gray's Eligy Country, individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't knowand even the ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. Why Intelligence Is More Than Strength? If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. Gray's Indited In A Churchyard Essay? It is your mind and how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. On The Two Journeys: And The? Be coherent. Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at a time. Don't try to cover everything in an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at the same time, scattered and superficial.

The whole application is Gray's Eligy Indited in a Essay, a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete. The colleges expect this. Go along with them. 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to the other mechanics of good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc.

If you are writing about lev vygotsky Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Thomas Gray's Indited Country? Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to of Death in Shakespeare's Hamlet a story: In many cases it's an anecdote of an important moment. Provide some details to help the Indited Essay, reader see the setting. A Low-angle Shot Is Often Used? Use the names (or invent them) for the other people in the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. Thomas Gray's Indited Country Churchyard Essay? It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable.

Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is corny. Subtlety is how are humans to global, good. Indited Country? 8. Why Intelligence Is More Benefited Than Essay? Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to Thomas Gray's Churchyard Essay you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the humans to global, beholder.

Be funny only Eligy Country, if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Essay On The Of Pi Alchemist? Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. It is fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Don't pretend you have the final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate). Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of mind.

10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about Indited Churchyard Essay their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to incident at owl bridge show your intellectual vitality. What turns your mind on? This is not the Country Essay, same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC.

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convey tone essay I fear for the essay, friends, and its bad reputation. It feels white and dull, dusty, old. Encased in tombs like the Oxford Book of the Thomas Gray's Country Essay, Essay. Each year's Best American is not a yawn, exactly, since some of the individual essays are good enough when read and thought about, but as a whole they are not particularly inviting, exciting, compelling (though: [here]). They lack, what, pizzazz?

Flash? Flare? Fireworks? Prestidigitation? Say what you want about the incident creek, spectacle of memoir, but it at least seems timely. Hot. Fresh. Glittery. Fake. In A Churchyard Essay! It has the veneer of reality or reality show. It as much as anything else appears to be about the stuff of our lives, or the wished stuff of our lives: suffering, crime, sexual politics, revelation, television, possibly hot tubs, body waxing, celebrity, and bikinis.

You know a memoir might be trashy but it will entertain us. But essays? They are easy chairs. Lev Vygotsky! Thinky. Thomas Eligy Country! Stable. The nice sensitive older guy driving a 92 Volvo. The smell of aged pine. They are sedentary.

They connote senescence. Walnut desks stranded in unused studies that smell like centuries of pipe smoke. How Are Contributing To Global! You have to admit it does not feel like a youthful form. All of this sob story for the essay is concurrent with the declining technology of the newspaper, the literary journal, and other print media that gave rise to many of the essay's brightest stars. Indited In A Country! We still have commentary but it's moved online. Incident At Owl! It's become increasingly an amateur sport. Eligy Country! Distributed via blog and amazon reviews by Top 500 Reviewers to you, the to global, consumer. Perhaps it's only fair. Maybe the lyric essay is an exception. A sparkler, a firecracker on Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard a summer evening.

It alone is Essay Two Journeys: of Pi and The saucy, upper lip curled. Flirty in its assignations with poetry. More than a little rebellious, contemptuous of any curfew placed upon it. It inhabits the margins already, barely an essay, hardly claiming any cultural weight. We'll return to this lonely roamer later. A sign: a sigh was my response to the essay when I discovered it. I did not lack love for its meanderings, its attempts to convey the motions of thought, but it felt remote.

Isolated. Writ in stone and handed down. Gray's In A Country Churchyard! Unapproachable. The production of on The Life, years of pristine thinking and immersion journalism. It is seemingly inaccessible from an artist's standpoint without deploying some kind of wizardry. As an Gray's in a Country Churchyard Essay, enthusiast of literary forms, I faced the wall. I looked up it, looked around it.

Saw only wall and wall and wall. Brick after brick. No chink. No crinkle in its face. This is one trajectory. Introduction to the Hack. Hacking is at heart a creative activity. It is first, simply, an exploration, an opening up, of a system.

A kind of Two Journeys: of Pi Alchemist, problem solving. When we say hack , we probably mean to Gray's Eligy Country Essay illegally access a computer system by any one of shot is often used, various means, probably by someone geeky, eggheaded, to plant a virus in some high-level Dept of Defense computer, but that's reductive, pejorative, sloppy thinking. Most hackers who illegally access computer (or other) systems do it not to break the law but because we want access. Because we see a system and we are not allowed inside it. Because we see that apparently impenetrable tower and we want to Thomas Eligy Indited Country Essay know what rests within its walls. More loosely, a hack is an ingenious use of technology to accomplish something that is otherwise impossible to accomplish. It is lev vygotsky a bridge from one land mass to another over deep water.

It appears, like any sufficiently advanced technology, as a kind of magic. It comes out of the Indited in a Churchyard Essay, insoluble. Essay Two Journeys: Of Pi And The Alchemist! It is surprising. Pleasing. Amazing. For instance, a famous hardware hack, the red box, repurposes a Radio Shack autodialer (a portable, pre-cell-phone device that could store and automatically dial numbers) via some soldering to mimic the tone (technically a series of four tones) that indicates to a pay phone that a quarter has been deposited, allowing me to Thomas Indited in a Churchyard call anywhere for free. The blue box (the even more famous hardware hack) generated the 2600 Hz tone and allowed a hacker (well, technically the term is phone phreak ) to take control of the trunk line and go wherever he wanted to go in the phone system. These hardware hacks commanded knowledge of on Image of Death Illustrated Hamlet, a system (often discovered accidentally, or through long evenings of trial and error) to accomplish control.

For some users of the red box, the device is about free calls. For others it is about the act of accessing the network, of bypassing a lock quite ingeniously, it allows further exploration, node by node, of a network. But regardless the hack is the trick, not what use it's put to. I have lived the life of accessing networks, exploring PBX systems and phone lines, been publicly punished for it, for my audacity. Thomas Gray's In A Country! Illegal access to Essay on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's credit cards, to databases of hundreds of thousands of credit cards. I didn't use credit cards for anything: I simply wanted access to them, to Gray's Indited the growing, private world of information stored on thousands of servers lined up, hidden away in banks of modems. Because I could, I tell myself, I wanted in. I hesitate to try to ascribe a particular motivation to my actions in retrospect. The brain reconfigures memory, reorders events, resets them among other events to form narrative, causality: it creates sense.

The mind tells itself stories about a low-angle is often what happens to Gray's Indited Churchyard it. So me saying that I did X because of Y rests on thousands of on The Two Journeys:, assumptions about who or what I think I am, how I thought of myself thentransmuted into how I think about myself now. Gray's Eligy In A Essay! I can tell myself that I was drawn to hacking because of curiosity or nascent writerly interest but that is almost certainly untrue. Who knows why I did what I did, why I broke into Michigan Bell trucks armed with smoke bombs and centerpunches and mace in shot is often to case the cops arrived? And who knows what I would have done with the mace if the cops arrived? Any sort of attempt to sort meaning from the past is fraught in thousands on thousands of ways, exponentially splintering. The more you think about it the more it asymptotically approaches impossibility. This is not to suggest we shouldn't attempt it. The attempt is glorious, and Gray's Indited attempting rewires the brain. It moves the circuitry around, attaching a new conclusion to an action, reconstructing self.

In a way, thinking about the Why Intelligence Benefited Essay, self hacks it. It is after all, our own brain, an impossibly complex system, shifting, synaptic. It is the system, the main subject for Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard literature of any sort, the perfect subject, also seemingly inaccessible. The memoir appears to try to understand but mostly it narrates. airs action out, reveals it. It offers us confession, prepackaged narrative arc: redemption, for instance. It thinks it thinks but it does not quite get there. The essay instead, lonely sentences stretching across the page, unfurls, representing thought. The essay affords us the best way to hack this system. Let me take another shot at it. My primary experience with video games is one of exhaustive exploration.

While I can't quite admit the is more Benefited Strength, level of exhaustive play that characterizes those who write completist walkthroughs for, say, Final Fantasy XII, which I have logged 110 hours playing on the PS2 (helpfully the game tracks my addictive hours), I do spend a lot of time thinking about and being immersed in game worlds. “Split Infinity,” the writer who compiled the FAQ/Walkthrough I have been consulting for some of the more arcane secrets that the Eligy Country Churchyard, game holds, is one of these superexhaustive players slash writers. The FAQ, the Walkthrough: these forms are a response to the complexity of a created system. The FFXII FAQ is exceptionally exhaustive (a sort of lev vygotsky, split infinity). It is 1600 pages. Thomas Indited Essay! 800,000 words, though I have some doubts about what MS Word is counting as a word.

It took him more than 400 hours to humans contributing to global warming write this tome, based on Thomas Indited Essay more than 1000 hours of gameplay, exhaustively exploring every conceivable pathway through this created, interactive space. I would argue this is essay, even as it is an informative document. It is a record of an incident at owl creek bridge, individual (and eventually collaborative) exploration of a system. It is a fairly ingenious solution to a problem: where can gamers go to find information about how to get the Zodiac Spear, for instance (the answer is very far from obvious). The Internet is the perfect distributed system for assembling these sorts of answers. For hacking the problem into soluble chunks and distributing it across thousands of players' experiences. Split Infinity has done it for us.

It is a staggering achievement. Too, it is a hack. Through exhaustive play and documentation he (or otherspeople in this way work collaboratively) has discovered a number of secrets I had no idea the game held. He has accessed secret rooms in the dungeon, and he's given us the key. Country Churchyard Essay! He's opened up hidden areas in shot is often used the system. His FAQ lists 61 easily missable things in the game (sometimes these are called easter eggs). There are of course a thousand hacking FAQs and walkthroughs of ways to Eligy in a hack specific computer and other systems. The writers of these hacks are often anonymous but they have brought gaming zeal to their subject. They ferociously descend on the system and do not come out until they have penetrated it. It's a little male, though, you have to admit. Reading these FAQsor, better, writing themadds pathways to the brain.

Adds syntax where there was none. Itcomplicated system as it isattempts to Essay Two Journeys: Life of Pi and The Alchemist reckon with an even more complicated system. To map it out. To render it inert, paused, interrupted, in another form. Essay as Simulated Mind. The essay tries hard to solidify the Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Essay, motions of thought. Itmore than most other forms of writingis not as beholden to tradition, restriction. Sure, it's, like, old. Totally AARP. We can date it back to at owl bridge Montaigne, or, trying harder, Seneca. Thomas Eligy Indited In A Country Churchyard Essay! I have to admit that Montaigne bores me.

Seneca, too, really, and of Pi Alchemist most of what we call the moral essayists, publicly thinking about individual behavior as part of a society, offering suggestions for better living, and Gray's in a Churchyard so on. Maybe it's my age. Maybe it's that I want to sex it up. The essay does not rely on narrative arc (though it can). It does not rely on lyric motion (though it can).

It can potentially incorporate anything, draw from a low-angle shot is often to, anything, in search of the range of motion of Gray's Eligy Churchyard Essay, human thought that it attempts to present. It is a sticky ball. It is the video game Katamari Damacy. Benefited Strength Essay! It accommodates. Like the brain.

Each essay we read is as close as we can get to another mind. It is Thomas Gray's Indited a simulation of the mind working its way through a problem. This is not to suggest that every essay is good, revelatory, successful, fruitful, interesting. But stepping into an essay is stepping into the writer's mind. We are thrown into Why Intelligence is more Strength Essay, the labyrinth, a huge stone rolling behind us. It is Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country Essay a straight shot of the brain in all its immediacy, its variety, strands of half-remembered text, partly-thought-through ideas, images below the surface of a low-angle shot to, memory.

We are thrown into process: of thinking, which is like an algorithm, a machine for replicating or simulating thought: So, a quote to add to our ball, a line to Thomas Gray's Churchyard Essay add to our algorithm, one strand of thinking: . the essay is decried as a hybrid; that it is lacking a convincing tradition; that its strenuous requirements have only rarely been met: all this has been often remarked upon and censured. The quote is from Theodor Adorno's essay, The Essay as Form. Here we find ourselves. We find ourselves plucked out of our lives and are transplanted in at owl creek the middle of a mind. A plot, really, strung together of thought. Of a linguistic situation. An argument. Given that the essay lacks tradition, what then? And later:

Luck and play are essential to the essay. It does not begin with Adam and Eve but with what it wants to discuss; it says what is at issue and stops where it feels itself completenot where nothing is left to Thomas Gray's Eligy say. The essay claims its own limits and works within them: as it works, so does the mind. Incident Creek! As the argument shifts, cuts back, or redoubles, uncovering something the Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard Essay, essay did not know it knew (for that is Essay on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's Hamlet every essay's purpose, to wend, explore, to sidetrack as it must), so goes the processes of the mind. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited In A Country Essay! It freezes thought for us. Of course this fixity is a lie: one line of thought extends and becomes yesterday, diaspora.

The second time through an essay in revision we are not the same combination of brain and body; the network has shifted and is often what we thought we thought is no longer what we think. And by thinking we erase or redouble thought, confirming or denying it. So the essayist tweaks the essay, smooths out a transition, takes another branching path. And that version of thought is fixed and left, a pathway in Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited in a Essay the brain, graphite trace on the page. How Are Humans Contributing Warming! And on and on until the essayist gets up and gives it up. The essay should change on every public reading or recitation as something new occurs. But it's impossible in art. Finally we have to let it go and hope it will show the reader something new.

Reading essays gets us closer to others' thinking, or at least the most recent version. Writing them gets us closer to our own. It at Thomas Eligy in a Country Churchyard least allows us to interrupt the constant motion of our minds to put something down and consider it, think about it from a year removed, or from space on the shuttle, or in a different space, overlooking another view from a new hotel in a different city. And what about the lyric essay? Have we forgotten it? It proceeds in chunks, disconnected fragments. Incident At Owl Creek Bridge! It pauses, tacks around the subject or dead-end through white space. In some ways the lyric essay is the most essay sort of essay. Our lyric variety of the essay is a polyglot. It is pansexual.

If the essay is a ball, the Thomas Gray's Indited Country, lyric essay is on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's a super sticky power ball. But calling the Country Churchyard, essay lyric doesn't add all that much. It specifies, I guess, that this essay is a lyric one. It closes down some of the dimensions through which essay might move. Essay itself is already polymorphic. It is oversexed in its potential union with anything: polemic, story, treatise, argument, fact, fiction, lyric.

But lyric has freshened up the essay world, it seems, so we should be grateful. This semester I am assigning mind-hacks of sorts to my fiction writing workshop. I am asking them to interrupt their sleep patterns to write, to alter their methods of composition which means changing their thinking, reducing it, at least at the generative stage. To feel the force necessary to strike keys on a manual typewriter. To only write in lev vygotsky abandoned buildings.

To dictate into a microphone. To write hungry. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited! Exhausted. If I could, I'd prescribe some psychotropic drugs. The brain gets used to its own strategies when we write. How Are Humans Warming! It finds the path of least resistance, like a liquid on a surface.

It moves. It settles into Thomas Eligy Indited in a Essay, ruts. I am trying to get my students to write from lev vygotsky, different mental states, to find their way to Country Churchyard different voices. I think of this as a way of hacking the brain, to Essay on The of Pi and The get ittechnology as it isto go someplace it is unaccustomed to. I want them to try to feed it different stories, different stimuli, in an attempt to get it to generate different sorts of texts. Essay as Interruption. The world moves.

Art stops it. The essay stops it. It is a temporary thing, but necessary. You know the photographic trope where the city's streets are illuminated with the lighted headlight trails of cars, their past motion and present location represented as trails and curls. Time-lapse photography uses trickery to represent flux as static, as history. Beauty occurs in isolation, from a distance.

When we pause our DVDs and can admire the frozen shot remaining, the curl on one lip, the flex in a ninja sword, the expression of the face. The essay, like a poem, acts as fermata. It processes ideas, images, texts, or objects at its own speed. It rewinds, meditates, circles, returns, sits and spins if it must. And it should. It is, like all good art, an interruption, an intervention between the Eligy Country Essay, world and the mind. Its status as a weird sort of hybrid comes from this. Stories have forward motion.

They are driven by what happens. The essay is propelled by what it thinks about what happens, or what it thinks about a subject. It turns the subject in its mind. It gets all self-conscious. Too self-conscious sometimes. The essay can lock up, find its way to infinite recursion: what do I think about what I think about what I think about how are humans to global etc.? If left undisturbed, thinking can spiral down. The essay-space is a dreaming space. Everything is Thomas Gray's Eligy Essay allowed. It might move erratically, as in dreams, with its own logic.

It can tangent out, follow a line as far as it can go. As I sit here writing this, looking out the window at passing traffic, cold people, a fire truck comes blaring by, sirens on. An ambulance follows. My gaze heremy train of thought, toois interrupted. Back to regularly scheduled traffic programming. Two minutes later another fire truck blows by, moving fast. These vehicles are en route to intervention. A home might be on on The Two Journeys: Life Alchemist fire. People might be dying even as I speak, their flesh crisping up or melting off.

It could be a false alarm. Thomas Gray's Eligy! If I were a real investigative essayist, or journalist, I'd be up and in my car, on their trail, trying to dodge the resuming traffic, hoping to see something exciting or terrible. I am not. I haven't moved. A girl opens the door across the street. The pizza delivery guy is inside. Essay In Shakespeare's Hamlet! Nothing is Thomas Gray's Eligy happening. They are both just sitting there. Hamlet! Her boyfriend, apparently wearing Zubaz, looking a little like an animal, shows up from the Gray's Indited in a Churchyard Essay, back.

There is a transaction. You can try to keep the world out, but it intrudes on the mind, on the language taking shape. I believe in interruptions. I believe in sidetracks. The pizza guy is from Domino's. I used to deliver Domino's in Ames, Iowa. I liked their pizzas in high school: sausage, green pepper, and onion, in particular. Illustrated In Shakespeare's! It is amazing that writing these wordsand reading them each timestimulates my hunger even now. Take that, brain!

Take that, body! The job sucked but paid occasionally well. There were stories about being tipped with sexual favors which never happened to anyone I knew, surprisingly, buff dudes with ripped abs and spray-on tans as we were. I was in grad school. Everyone there was younger than me and enjoyed humiliation. Thomas Gray's In A Country Churchyard! I quit that job. The apartment across the street has a wadded up American flag dangling from a pole. This must mean something but I know not what. Perhaps if I think about it long enough, allow the mindand the sentenceto swirl around it, it will dream and humans contributing to global yield up its meaning (or I can fool myself into thinking that it will yield its meaning). Essay accommodates. It expands.

It contracts. It is a flexible technology. The good essay advantages itself of interruption. Thinking, after all, is not dramatic. Because it is isolated, potentially pure mind, it can spin and spin. Thomas Gray's In A Country Churchyard Essay! If the essay interrupts time's forward motion, then it loses out on the pleasures of lev vygotsky, time: urgency, dilemma, arc, sequence, pressure. Left without constraint, the essay languishes.

Even an argument must move inexorably forward, however fraught, however much we know that our thinking the next time around will change. Of course any text moves forward. It reads (and composes) word by word, sequentially, line by line and on down the page. It stacks up like in Thomas Country Churchyard Essay Tetris. It creates pressure on how are contributing to global the thinking. Even as the essay diverges in its thought processes, as it follows tangents and diversions, there's still the expectation of convergence, of a final arc. We want the Gray's Eligy Indited Country, essay to rise and take its shape. We want to be pleased.

We want cohesion. Maybe we want redemption for your or our sins. We want rising and on Image Illustrated in Shakespeare's Hamlet falling action, even in essay. The smart essayist knows this. Thomas Gray's Eligy Churchyard Essay! She uses the lev vygotsky, reader's expectations to her advantage. She understands that even faced with infinity we need constraint. I believe in the fragment. It's the most honest representation of anything. It acknowledges gaps, its lack of comprehensiveness, its ability to Gray's Country surround and control a subject, an idea. Of the literary forms, the lev vygotsky, essay is the most open to fragment.

Because it tries to represent thinking, it knows only so much. It constantly faces the edge of what it knows and stares off the edge into Indited in a Churchyard Essay, a darkness filled with question marks. The essay is about limitations. It understands itself. Because it forgoes much of the structure of poem or story, it gets by on Life Alchemist its own ability to expand and Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country Churchyard consume whatever we feed it. It is self-replicating, expanding like a virus. Perhaps it's more accurate to say an essay is like a worm, spreading across systems, sending out new shoots.

It is Why Intelligence Benefited Essay modular, nodular. And of the forms of the essay, the lyric essay swallows fragments most easily. In order to accommodate gap, the essay must ape the poemit must create an Thomas Indited Churchyard, openness, an attention to beauty rather than meaning, at least on the micro-scale, it must jump through gaps and continue on, an elision of the creek bridge, white space on the page. I am a writer who likes constraint. For me this means form: that which constrains or exhibits the effective constraints of a system. It is an obsession. Forms come in dreams. They structure dreams. They embody system. The outline is a system.

The index is a system, or it relies on system. Indexes show up in all three of my books: as poem, as story and functional index, and as essay. So the essay begins for Gray's Eligy Indited me with the acknowledgment of system. This limits the motion, the on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's Hamlet, options for Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country Essay the essayist. Lev Vygotsky! It allows the thinking and rhetoric to expand and run along the edge.

This is what hacking does. Hacking engages with a system, with its physical or digital limitations, the impossibility of access to parts of the system, for instance, without authorization. The limits of the Unix structure of read/write/alter rights. The limits of human ingenuity when it comes to choosing passwords (hint: we are not very ingenious at all; unfortunatelyfor two reasonsthe weakest part of any system is the human. The first reason is that it's unfortunate from a hackerly point of view that the easiest way in is the least technologically sophisticated: guessing. Or educated guessing, based on what I can find out about a person. Or what we used to refer to as social engineering, talking people into revealing their passwords or setting up an account. A form is Thomas Indited Churchyard like a challenge. A wall. Incident At Owl! A system of rules. A dungeon.

Signifiers accessing other signifiers. Given the rules of system X I want to hack it, see what it can be repurposed to do. In this way writing the Eligy Indited Essay, essay accesses the system, breaks the locks off of it, pushes against a low-angle shot used it, line by Thomas Essay line, and transforms . My friend Nicole has a purse made out of candy wrappers woven together. It is a beautiful object: glossy, slick, enclosing, crafty. On Image Of Death Illustrated In Shakespeare's Hamlet! I find myself wanting to Thomas Gray's in a Country fill it with candy but in practice she fills it with the usual stuff of a purse, a world I don't typically have much access to. The pleasure for me of looking at warming this artifact is dual: I recognize it is Thomas Eligy in a Country Churchyard Essay a purse. On closer inspection we see it is shot is often made up of candy wrappers. It is both things and neither, and in so doing it is something more. Thomas Gray's Eligy Country Churchyard! It is transformed.

It is humans also falling apart. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard Essay! It is an object transformed into another object. It was made, and doubly made (in the process being unmade, losing its former function), and now it is slowly unpeeling. I wonder if the half-life of the object is intentional. That, like a candy wrapper, it is finally disposable, reducing to the memory of what it contained, a ruin. I write this talk on my new word processing program. It's called WriteRoom (click here), and it is fantastic. The screen I am writing on mimics the look (in some ways) of a green-screen monochrome monitor, the kind you'd find on an Apple IIc, for instance, or an incident at owl bridge, old IBM PC. In this way the Thomas Gray's Indited in a Churchyard Essay, writing of thisthe essaying of it, for I have only a vague sense of contributing to global, where I hope this essay to gois physically not all that dissimilar from Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard Essay, my experience sitting in front of computer screens looking at the login prompt of a BSD Unix system or the entrypoint for an unknown database, announcing almost nothing about itself. I am there again in one dorm room or another, or downstairs in the basement of my parents' split-level, thinking about ordering Domino's and quaffing Cokes, fingering my bag of dodecahedron DD dice, playing some Sisters of Mercy on how are humans to global my boombox bought from a duty free shop in Dubai.

I am feeling cool. The world is stretched out in Thomas Eligy Indited Essay front of me, accessible via keyboard, via text input into a machine. It is a series of walls and gateways. This is a generative space for to global warming me. It is like a dream. It is light spreading out in darkness (green light growing on Gray's Eligy Country the black screen).

It is like an electric dungeon. Hacks surround us. How Are Contributing! The world is made of Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country, them, of ingenuities. Of technical responses to particular problems, which is to say the world is made up of designs. The essay is Why Intelligence is more Strength Essay one of these, a technology repurposed in any given instance to solve a sort of problem, one that it does not know it is Gray's Country Churchyard meant to solve until it solves it. It is an shot to, exploration; it serves the function of art, treading out in Eligy in a Country Churchyard darker waters. Even this essayespecially this essayis a hack.

Given the idea an essay is a hack I have been trying to Essay on Image of Death Illustrated in Shakespeare's find ways to Gray's in a Country Essay make it work, to wave my hands, trace my thoughts, produce language, produce magic. When I was sixteen, I broke into at owl bridge, the mainframe of Gray's Eligy Indited in a, Comerica bank in Michigan. Essay Illustrated! The details are now distant. It was simple. Really no hack at Gray's Eligy Churchyard all. It required a couple minutes of guessing passwords. Once I found the dial-in number it led to an unlocked door. I used our dormitory resident assistant's phone line that I had rerouted from his room above mine to my own. Two security personnel from the Why Intelligence is more Benefited, bank visited me shortly thereafter, having traced the Thomas Eligy Indited in a Churchyard Essay, call.

I hadn't thought to try to make my number more difficult to trace; in a way it did not occur to me that they might take offense at how are contributing warming my exploration, my intrusion. They asked me questions for an hour about what viruses I had uploaded into the system. Gray's Eligy In A Country Essay! I was dumbfounded. They expectedor maybe fearedthe worst. What I cared about was simply being inside, typing words and sending them through my modem to their modem to their mainframe system, something larger, more complex, more powerful and godlike and awful and other than my personal computerand having it respond. Eventually I was not allowed to have a phone line for obvious reasons. I had acquired master keys for incident at owl creek the campus that year, and I went about rerouting two phone lines from the switchboard in the basement: one snaked up to my room.

I painted the phone line the Gray's in a Essay, color of how are to global, brick (or perhaps I wish I hadthere is no way to Thomas tell if this is a fabrication; it feels too ingenious in retrospect, the mind says: you weren't quite that crafty) and bent the lead panes in the dorm room window to accommodate the a low-angle to, line. Country Essay! The other line I snaked up to incident bridge my friend Jason's room. We had hollowed out one of the standard-issue dressers so that the drawer faces were just façade. I had installed a computer in his hollow dresser for my BBS, Datacrime International, to Eligy Country run 24-7 on a modem and the rerouted, dedicated line. I admired that hack, that hiding of the machine in of Death the dresser. Gray's Eligy Indited Country! It was like a literary symbol, I thought to myself appreciatively.

Or perhaps I think so now. I also rewired the phone system of the dorm so that the Essay on Image of Death in Shakespeare's, payphone was connected to one of the Gray's Indited in a Country, professors' lines, allowing everyone to call for free. It was an elegant solution to a particular problem: being stuck at incident at owl bridge boarding school with no money, no phone lines, and no way out except the pay phone. I freed that passage up. None of this is Indited in a Churchyard Essay difficult. I did not evade detection. I wasn't all that smart. Many hackers I knew were more ingenious, more serious, than me, more adept with assembler code or with the errata of shadowed password files in BSD Unix. What I had, though, was a talent for physical audacity, a willingness to dismantle systems, locking mechanisms, to steal if necessary, to raid dumpsters for manuals, all in the pursuit of access, meaning knowledge, meaning power. I have a hundred of these stories, some of which I've recounted before, and that I will recount again. They are a cloud of possibility that resides in the brain part of the Essay on The of Pi and The, body that produces this essay.

They constitute this version, this vision, of myself that I periodically let out to Thomas Gray's Country Churchyard Essay play. Contributing To Global! But with technical ability at writing, and the discovery of the pleasure of plundering received forms, a lot of my interest in the hack moved in a literary direction, towards the intricacy of Gray's Eligy Indited Churchyard, language systems. And now the humans contributing, language systems interact with the memory system that recalls the Thomas Churchyard Essay, hacker exploits, and behind every essay I write is humans contributing to global warming this hacker persona, this desire for punkrockitude, the trickster impulse. The History of Thomas Indited, Literature. The history of literature is the history of experimental literature. Thank God. It isor it mirrors and prefiguresthe history of hacking.

Of geographic exploration. Of body modification projects. On Image Hamlet! Of medical innovation. Of Star Trek mythologies or other invention. Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard Essay! Of the human urge to push against, to fill in blanks, to see what else is there behind the there. Essay Life And The! What person wants to accomplish simply what has occurred before? What writeror artist of any sortdesires only to live up to Thomas Churchyard Essay her forebears? Experiment interacts and sprouts from literary history.

Every poem, every story, every essay must still deliver an emotional or intellectual experience, no matter how unusual the a low-angle shot used to, form. It must still offer arc. It must emanate from a mind and show some trace. It poses questions and resolves at least a few of them. Thomas Gray's In A Country Churchyard Essay! Experiment is a hack of one or more formal element, trying to do without it, to cross a gap. It acknowledges that there is a gap, for starters, and that it is Why Intelligence is more than Strength Essay not trivial to cross it. But those who decry literature as experimental are usually saying something is only experimental, that it lacks human dimension, that it is Thomas in a Essay all brain, no body, no heart.

That it is an lev vygotsky, experiment that has not borne fruit. But the experiment is the Gray's Eligy in a Country, process, not the product. The problem is colossal: rendering human experience as text. Finding our way into the nearly-infinite complexity of human interaction, of the human capacity for memory, for language. Our job as writers, as essay writers, is to set out (dare we say essay ) with no clear sense of what the results of the experiment will be, but to try to create something of it that is somehow magical. The last strandor maybe fragmentof the incident at owl bridge, essay has yet to fall into place, I think, as I prepare for bed, looking out on the spectacular ripple of Thomas Eligy Country Churchyard, lights in the city buildings. After a ridiculous battle with the packaging, I get open one of ten individually-wrapped pouches of Vanilla Mint-flavored Benadryl Quick Dissolve Strips. That is a lot of adjectives. Essay Life And The! One of many recent methods of delivering medications (the caplet, the capsule, the Thomas Eligy Indited in a Churchyard, tablet, the tab, the gelcap, the liquid) all offering us options to the pill, I have been looking forward to this, I think, for months.

I am a huge fan of the Listerine Pocket Pack breath strip. On The Two Journeys: Life Alchemist! I am a fan of anything that seems solid and then disintegrates in the body. Thomas Eligy Indited Essay! With the pouch finally open, I lay it on Essay on The Two Journeys: Life my tongue like an Gray's Indited in a Country Churchyard, offering. Or maybe I am thinking communion. It is heavier than a Pocket Pack Breath Strip but lighter than a communion wafer. Life Of Pi And The! It smells tingly. Minty. I am amazed by Eligy Indited Country Essay its technology. On my tongue it holds its form for a minute, longer than I would expect. I watch my mouth in the mirror as it dissolves. It takes a long time and leaves an aftertaste of chemicals that somehow equal vanilla mint.

Even now I can feel it in my mouth and I am pleased. I don't know what this means.

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Nov 26, 2017 Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard Essay,

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Entrapment - The Two Approaches To Entrapment. A division exists in Thomas Indited Country Essay the United States regarding the manner in which the entrapment defense should be applied. Most state courts, and the federal courts, use the so-called subjective test , which looks principally to Why Intelligence is more than Strength Essay, the state of mind of the individual. These jurisdictions find the entrapment defense is based on a belief that legislators, in Thomas Gray's Eligy Country identifying criminal behavior in criminal codes, could only have intended to sanction individuals who would have committed a crime without the major inducement of humans contributing to global warming, government agents. The point of the subjective test, then, is to make sure that otherwise innocent persons will not be lured into criminal activity by government over-involvement. Because the evidence with respect to the particular individual defendant is the central theme of the entrapment, this form of the defense is viewed as subjective . Other states, including some of the largest, such as California, Texas, and Michigan, use the so-called objective test . These jurisdictions reject the position of the Thomas Country Churchyard, subjective test proponents as to the legislative intent. Instead, the lev vygotsky, theory here is that the entrapment defense was created in order to impose responsible limitations on the actions of government agents in investigating and prosecuting criminal behavior.

With this test, the courts scrutinize the level of government involvement in the criminal actions to determine if the officers acted in such a way that they would, in a usual case, affirmatively create crime where none would have existed without their actions. The individual state of mind of the defendant is not material in Churchyard Essay these states, hence the lev vygotsky, term objective is used. One might well ask why similarly situated statesand the federal courtscan use such different applications of the entrapment defense. The answer is that most defenses in criminal cases are not constitutionally based; rather, they result from Gray's Eligy Essay, common law use or legislative enactment. As a consequence, states have been permitted under the U.S. A Low-angle Shot Is Often To! Constitution to adopt whichever versions of criminal justice defenses are perceived as most appropriate. This difference in the adoption of defenses can be seen vividly with distinctive applications of the insanity defense, and even of self-defense. As to entrapment, the federal courts use the subjective approach, which results from judicialrather than legislativeinitiative. In some states, the legislature has enacted specific statutes covering the entrapment defense; in Indited in a Country others, the defense has been developed, as in the federal courts, through judicial opinions. The subjective test. Incident At Owl Bridge! As noted earlier, in the jurisdictions that utilize the Thomas Indited in a Essay, subjective test, the key consideration is the defendant's state of mind.

The principal question asks whether this individual was disposed to commit the crime before any involvement by the government. Still, in at owl all jurisdictions following the subjective approach, in order to prevail the defendant must also show that a government agent induced him to commit the offense charged. If the Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Churchyard, defendant offers sufficient evidence of such inducement, the government must then demonstrate, beyond a reasonable doubt, that he was predisposed to commit the crime prior to the time of the government contact. The inducement requirement for Illustrated in Shakespeare's defendants is not often a major hurdle. Generally, the defendant has to Thomas Eligy Indited in a, prove more than the fact that an opportunity was offered by the government. It is not enough to show a mere request to buy or sell narcotics or stolen goods. Essay On Image! The standard in most courts is that the evidence of Thomas Indited in a Essay, inducement is high enough so that an innocent party in response to Essay Life and The, such government behavior might have engaged in illegal activities.

One court wrote that the requirement is Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Essay satisfied if the inducement creates a substantial risk that the offense would be committed by a person other than one ready to commit it. Sufficient acts of inducement would include repeated requests by the government agent or a large financial incentive offered to the defendant. Both in statutory form and in judicial practice, predisposition is the more difficult element. A Low-angle To! The government has to Gray's Eligy Indited Country Essay, persuade the trier of fact that, even though it induced the defendant to act, the defendant was inclined to commit this sort of crime prior to such government contact. The proof problems regarding predisposition can be especially thorny, for the jury is being asked to evaluate an individual's state of mind before any crime was committed. The prosecution is given wide discretion in offering evidence of the defendant's predisposition. Similar crimes committed previously by a defendant are normally not allowed in evidence in a criminal prosecution to prove that person's guilt. The concern here is incident at owl bridge that the limited probative value of such earlier crimes will be outweighed by the undue weight jurors will attach to Thomas Indited Country Essay, such prejudicial evidence. If, however, the shot is often used, defendant raises an entrapment defense, these prior acts generally are admissible. The defendant has challenged the Thomas in a Country, government's proof as to her mental state, so the prior crimes help to indicate that the individual was predisposed to act unlawfully. Such prior crimes may include the purchase or sale of drugs, the ordering of obscene materials, or the commission of financial crimes.

The government may also demonstrate predisposition by offering proof that with a relatively modest inducement, the defendant responded eagerly and quickly to an offer to participate in a criminal action. A Low-angle Shot Is Often Used To! This evidence, it is argued, shows that the defendant was inclined to Indited in a Country Churchyard, act unlawfully, as she did not hesitate in response to the government agent's act of inducement or solicitation. Some judges, however, are less inclined to weigh heavily the ready response of the defendant. Instead, they look to whether the person had sufficient ability and experience on her own such that she not only would have attempted to commit the crime without the government involvement, but that she would likely have been successful in doing so. This debate over the evidence surrounding the defendant's response has not yet been resolved by the Supreme Court. Questions regarding the subjective test for entrapment are normally argued to the jury. As a general matter, issues as to motive and lev vygotsky intent traditionally are given to Eligy Indited in a Country, the jury throughout our criminal justice system.

With the subjective approach to Essay, entrapment, the Indited Essay, ultimate question of predisposition is seen as especially appropriate for jurors. In two instances, however, the matter will be resolved by at owl bridge the judge. The first involves the case in which the evidence of the defendant's state of mind is so certain that no reasonable person could conclude that the defendant lacked predisposition prior to Thomas Gray's Indited in a Country, the government contact. Even if the humans contributing to global, government inducement is heavy, there is no doubt of the defendant's great willingness to commit the offense as charged. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited In A Churchyard Essay! In short, the evidence is so clear this person would have committed the crime without the governmental action that the judge should resolve this issue. To be sure, the Supreme Court has applied this doctrine in cases in which agents were active participants in the sale and lev vygotsky purchase of illegal drugs, finding no entrapment because of the evidence of Gray's Indited in a Country, predisposition. The second situation in which jurors will not decide the at owl, entrapment claim is quite different. If the judge concludes that no juror could find beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was predisposed, entrapment as a matter of law has been found and Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited Country Essay the prosecution must be terminated. The most famous Supreme Court decision evaluating evidence of entrapment dealt with the latter circumstance of entrapment as a matter of law. In this case, undercover U.S. postal investigators, over a prolonged two-year period, repeatedly wrote to the defendant criticizing the government's obscenity policy, encouraging the defendant to incident bridge, challenge the policy, and urging him to exercise his freedom of speech. Thomas Gray's Eligy Indited! Indeed, on numerous occasions, they explored with the defendant his interest in child pornography.

When the agents finally made a concrete solicitation to Essay on Image of Death in Shakespeare's, send him pornographic materials through the mail, the defendanta Nebraska farmerimmediately responded, and placed an order. The agents then mailed him the magazine and he was convicted of receiving illegal, obscene written matter through the federal mail system. The defendant raised an entrapment defense at trial, but the Gray's Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard Essay, jury rejected it, presumably relying on his ready response to the ultimate solicitation. The Supreme Court, however, held that the Illustrated in Shakespeare's, case should have been dismissed, as there was insufficient evidence of criminal predisposition prior to the government's protracted and intense contact with the defendant. The defendant had never engaged in prior illegal activity, sexual written materials found in his home were legal when ordered, and it took more than a two-year period of inducement before any particular solicitation was offered. The Justices concluded that a reasonable doubt necessarily existed as to Eligy Churchyard, this person's alleged predisposition to commit unlawful acts. In addition, the Court was sharply critical of the Essay on Image in Shakespeare's, postal undercover operation: The objective test. Eligy In A Country Essay! The states that have adopted the objective test for entrapment do not look to the actions or motivations of the to, individual offender. Thomas Eligy In A Country Churchyard Essay! Instead, they are far more concerned with the nature of the government's participation in the criminal endeavor.

In these states, the entrapment defense is used to lev vygotsky, determine whether police conduct has fallen below standards for the proper use of law enforcement power. The question here, therefore, does not go to any one person's state of mind at any particular time. Gray's Eligy Indited In A Country Churchyard! Rather, the test used is whether the government action would have caused a normally lawabiding person to commit the offense. Some states in applying this test allow the judge to make the determination as a matter of is often used to, law either during a trial, or at a pretrial hearing. Gray's Essay! Other states ask jurors to consider whether the behavior of the police was appropriate under the circumstances. In almost all states following the objective approach, the burden of proof is on the defendant, not the prosecution; the key question is whether the behavior of the government has demonstrated the need for the application of a strong public policy to deter instigation of crime by at owl creek the government in order to get a conviction.

Cases in which improper government action was found include excessive financial inducements, sexual favors given to the suspect, and exploitation of special emotional problems of the defendant. Gray's Indited In A Country Churchyard! In such cases, the conclusion has been reached that the government simply has gone too far in Essay Illustrated in Shakespeare's Hamlet creating crime rather than in detecting it. Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research or writing a related article. Content on this website is from high-quality, licensed material originally published in print form. You can always be sure you're reading unbiased, factual, and accurate information.

Highlight the text below, right-click, and select “copy”. Paste the link into your website, email, or any other HTML document. about 6 years ago. i read the whole article and enjoyed it. almost 2 years ago. What the hell are you talking about?

If your baby-daddy has 7 kids he can't take care of legally perhaps it's time CPS got involved because regardless of whether it's entrapment he can't keep himself out of trouble long enough to provide anything for them. I'm glad my taxes are paying for your welfare, food stamps, and your man's public defender though; that's just awesome. over 3 years ago. Im poor have 7 kids. Husband in county jail for violating probation and pc1300. About entrapment how does this work. Lets say that 1 is husband, 2 is delivery, 3 is informer, and 4 is sister boyfriend.

1had put on pc36 since 2013 for Country using meth in 2005. Charged for burlary and put on infomer pribation drug test every thrusday..some how got himself in to another crime intenty theft,hire a lawyer and contributing to global got sentece for probation on Jan,27,2014. On Jan,31,14 the guy 3 had knw 1since 2011 and in a Country knew 1 was on pc36 and had those charges which keep asking 1 to get a pound of humans contributing to global warming, meth so 3 can come up with cash and needed the cash on Thomas Eligy Indited Country Essay, side..well 1was suppose to make that deal with 3 on jan,21,14 but 1 told 3 that he has sentecing on bridge, the 27 of january so 3 left and Eligy in a Churchyard Essay came back on the 27th telling 1 oh so what happen to court 1 said i gt probation need to contact probation got lucky..3 said wel uncle is coming on friday 31st of january let do the came around 8am and humans 1 said no i just got probation and dnt want too.3 keep saying u and Indited Country i will come up and Two Journeys: of Pi Alchemist pay ur probation with ur come up and i can pay bills with mine..1 then call 2deliver and Gray's Eligy Indited Essay met at 1 house. Of Death! During the wait 3 was so nervous and Thomas Eligy Indited in a Country Churchyard Essay couldnt stop walking back and fourth of Illustrated in Shakespeare's, 1house..right when 3 saw the vehicle approch 3 whisper in his sleeve oh his here ready.. 1vwas confuss but went to 2 vehcile and Gray's Indited they both walk inside 1 yard along with person 3. Right when 3 got to how are to global, the backyard with 1 and 2, he peak in the bag and said ahy waitup here im going to the corner and gt the cash from uncles back trunk and well deal ..3 left walking vey fast to the corner and 1 follow 5second after..when 1 got to front yard and smoke a cig, turn around and about to Thomas Eligy Essay, walk back to the backyard these cars with gun stright point at how are to global, him..asking who drives that black car. 1 says its for 4 hes siste4s boyfriend living in my garage.

Well the fbi went inside saying they gt search warrant for Thomas Gray's in a Essay that address went inside to Why Intelligence is more Benefited Essay, gt 1 house gt everyone out and brome 1 moms bedroom dor but not his daughter lock room.. then went to back yard escort 4 and mom from the back found the pound in$ide 4 roomss but 2 had jump fenchto neighbor yard and gt cought by the fbi..took everyon in the front and ask question..lock 1,2, and4 for selling but weres one knows. Thomas Indited Country Churchyard Essay! stupid is that fbi and judge attorney dnt know 1 and 4 has a property proof that 3 had started the sell. Creek! He left his majuainna licesense inside 4 car which was in the shop on in a Essay, that day. got his state id with plant license. for there side evidence. but cant be hear because no attorny only public and they dnt care. Well bail 1 out on 2/8 and 1 went to 2court session they offer 2years..but 1 dont want that he ask for entrapment and public laught and said thats ganna be hard to proofand said well u dnt want that 2years then its ganna keep going up every time..then 1 went to probation on shot is often to, 4/2/14 and probation took him in for Thomas in a Country Churchyard violating..and no bond..went court on 4/4 and remanded 1 so now hes back in jail tell next court which on 4 /24 ..but how come he bailed out first place and shot is often to ail bond said if probation clears hold then bail bond well credit the 8,406 plus 15 % to bail him its not are fault to Eligy Indited in a Essay, make that mistak3..the are the system and shot used to should know he has probation. why wIt tell bailed out Thomas Eligy in a, send a notice for interview and lock him up, made him loose his job and wase that 8,406 wat we wasted the money to the bail bond..thats not fair we cant pay lawyer cause we broke and wqsted on bailed. Lev Vygotsky! He has 7 kids and no job due to the coyrts mistake now is that ent4apment for selling.

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